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Ethnic Conflict in Karachi- From Past to Present -1

Partition of India and migration has left long term effects, challenges and issues which are mostly overlooked by intelligentsia and opinion makers in both India and Pakistan which in turn has impacted conventional wisdom and formed many misconceptions. Many past and present issues for example Khalistan, Kashmir or Karachi (K seems to be the lucky letter here) cannot be understood rather can easily be misunderstood without a rational and analytical approach towards events around Partition. For many especially those with pre defined agendas, easiest way out is to reach conclusions first and then create theories or myths to suit themselves. Unfortunately it is always easy to fall for emotional and rhetorical outburst. Second choice is to keep on pondering into research which is inviting us to rethink partition and migration; this may help us overcoming many of present biases and have not only a sympathetic but a conciliatory, problem solving attitude. History is not a static process, so as social, political or economical progress. Hardline and fascist attitudes are based on ignorance and especially on distortion of history, and only a rational and open attitude can change path of hatred, disputes and ridiculousness.

There are various opinions in historiography (1) on why was India partitioned, these were not only factors such as identity or religion which conserved into two nation theory but others such as economic backwardness of Muslims in various regions as compared to Hindus and uneven socio-economic development in different communities, challenges to cultural norms and values of Muslim, threats to the existence of nobility and feudal class posed by a progressive, democratic , class conscious Hindu majority or interests of salaried middle class of Muslims which has a dominant voice, British moves to provoke divisions and communal differences like separate electorate system (2), Reservations of Congress in giving concessions to Muslim and ideal of forming a strong centralized state (3) or anti war policy of various influencers such as the Forward Bloc in the Congress, All India Kisan Sabha and other radical parties during world war two which impacted British policies (4) . There were regional or provincial realities as well where politics and interests of local interest groups played an important role in shaping course of events such as United Bengal movement or failure of Unionist party in Punjab (5) or influence and role of Pirs in Sindh (6) or the episode of civil disobedience movement in NWFP (7). It was culmination of a variety of historical, social, cultural and political forces and factors which ended up in partition of India.

Partition of India resulted in two dominion states of Pakistan and Union of India, and division of two provinces of Bengal and Punjab. A massive mass population migration took place across the borders in the shadow of large scale communal violence, estimates of migrants between 1947 and 1951 ranges from 10 to 18 million and an estimated 200,000 to 1 million casualties as a result of communal violence(8). Migration as a result of partition of India is as multi faced and complex as partition itself, there were ideological as well as situational and regional factors behind this mass exodus towards both sides of newly created borders, major factor specially in Punjab was the violence unleashed by Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims (9). It is now believed that the violence against targeted communities was well planned (10), violence was used as a tactical mean before and after elections in 1946 for example in Calcutta, similarly violence after announcement of partition was organized and there were motives to force a community to leave and evacuate an area completely.

This mass migration on both sides resulted in sudden demographic changes and challenges. Provinces and cities were transformed and balance of power switched from one dominant community to other, linguistic and racial proportions were affected and many cities were changed for good; Calcutta, Dacca, Delhi, Lahore and Karachi were transformed as a result of partition. This disturbance was to be the source of ethnic and racial conflicts in both countries.

Population of Calcutta increased by 20% in five years by 1951, with a huge influx of lower class population whose effects were evident in changing landscape of Calcutta (11). Hindu merchants were controlling 85% of the properties in Dacca and it was a Hindu majority city that migrated in 1947 and their population was marginalized to five percent (12). In Delhi, migrants from west opened up violence against Muslims which resulted in migration of around two third of its Muslim population, their proportion declined from 40.5 in 1941 to just 6.6 percent (13), still its population grew by 106% which transformed it to a Punjabi majority city. Lahore was two third Muslim majority city but its economic activity and business was dominated by non-Muslims majorly Hindus which left as result of communal violence, this vacuum was filled by migrants from east Punjab (14). Karachi too was a Hindu majority city, already a busy port and commercial centre where business was dominated by Gujratis and Lohanas. By 1948 reports of violence from other parts of India and Pakistan and then exodus of Muslims from India has moved most of them with their capital to India (15) and by 1953 Karachi has reached a population of 1.3 million from 400,000 in 1947.

Sikhs in India demanded a separate province and adjustments in boundaries as a solution to communal problems in Punjab, Giani Kartar Singh had suggested scheme of Azad Punjab which was picked up by Akali Dal which demanded Ambala, Jallundur, Lahore divisions and Lyallpur District to be formulated as a new province to safeguard Sikh interest, this demand was later radicalized as demand of a separate state (16). After Partition and exodus of Sikhs and Hindus from West Punjab, Indian Punjab (Pepsu) had 2.5 million refugees almost a fifth of its population, after secession of states such as Patiala and others, Sikhs became a slight majority (17). Before partition they were scattered around Punjab and have no majority in any particular district which became a hurdle against their demand of a separate province. Partition and resulted migration has removed that hurdle, and demand of Khalistan (to be raised later) appeared to be a reality.

There was no Siliguri Corridor before partition of India, and what is now called the North-Eastern states had better communication resources with rest of India. This was changed after creation of East Pakistan and Silliguri Corridor was the only connection between North East and rest of India. Migration was a challenge for indigenous population during British Raj, but situation became deteriorated after independence (18). Immigrants have affected the population especially in certain areas and resulting changes in demography and regional economics is considered as one of the reasons behind separatist movements in the region.

Migration of Muslims to Pakistan was to be the source of many conflicts as well, especially in Sindh and East Bengal and particularly in city of Karachi later to be supplemented by internal migration of people from across Pakistan to the first capital and economic hub of the country. As we have seen, there were dynamic overlapping factors behind partition and resulting migration. These factors originated conflicts where various interest groups collided to safe guard their interests or seek the rights they have associated with freedom. Policy of strong centralization and resulting clutch (over the government and administration) of certain elements from bureaucracy and feudal aristocracy paved the way for continues tension between centre and provinces (19). Migrants who settled in Punjab were mostly from East Punjab and were assimilated easily, yet they were huge in numbers and estimated to be around 5 million migrants settled in Punjab (20). Those who ended up in Sindh had different course and settled largely in urban areas notably in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. These migrants were from all parts of India and these are the ones generally known as Muhajirs or ‘Urdu speaking’ (21) as dominant amongst them were mostly from North Indian Muslim minority areas. It is worthwhile to note again that Punjab in present Pakistan received almost 70% percent of the migrants, and Sindh received around 20% (22). Yet it was Sindh where fierce ethnic conflict was to emerge.

References:-
1. Subhakanta Behera, Politicising Histiography: True Story of Partition, http://www.mainstreamweekly.net/article1890.html, last viewed 22/08/2011
2. Lucy Chester, The 1947 partition, drawing the Indo-Pakistani Boundary, http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2002_01-03/chester_partition/chester_partition.htm, last viewed 22/08/2011
3. Joya Chatterji, The spoils of Partition: Bengal and India, 1947-1967(Cambridge University Press, 2007)
4. India’s Struggle for Freedom: Role of associated movements, http://www.congress.org.in/new/india-struggle-for-freedom.php, last viewed 22/08/2011
5. Ian Talbot, Punjab and the Raj, 1849-1947 (New Dehli, Manohar Publications, 1988)
6. Sarah Ansari, Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sindh, 1843-1947 (Cambridge University Press, 1992)
7. Riaz Ahmad, An aspect of the Pakistan Movement: Muslim League’s Civil Disobedience Movement against the NSWFP Ministry of Dr. Khan Sahib (20 February=4 June 1947), http://www.nihcr.edu.pk/Latest_English_Journal/An_Aspect_of_the_Pakistan_Movement.pdf, last viewed 22/08/2011
8. Hill K, Seltzer W, Leaning J, Malik S J, Russell SS, Makinson C, “A demographic study of forced Migration: The 1947 Partition of India” http://paa2004.princeton.edu/download.asp?submissionId=41274, last viewed 22/08/2011
9. Ian Talbot and Gurharpal Singh, The Partition of India (Cambridge University Press, 2009)
10. Paul, R. Brass, The partition of India and retributive genocide in the Punjab 1946-47, means, methods , and purposes, 2003 http://faculty.washington.edu/brass/Partition.pdf, last viewed 22/08/2011
11. Ian Talbot and Gurharpal Singh, The Partition of India (Cambridge University Press, 2009), p115-117
12. Ian Talbot and Gurharpal Singh, The Partition of India (Cambridge University Press, 2009), p118
13. Ian Talbot and Gurharpal Singh, The Partition of India (Cambridge University Press, 2009), p119
14. Ian Talbot and Gurharpal Singh, The Partition of India (Cambridge University Press, 2009), p123
15. Ian Talbot and Gurharpal Singh, The Partition of India (Cambridge University Press, 2009), p12
16. Azad Punjab, http://www.thesikhencyclopedia.com/the-british-and-sikhs-1849-1947/azad-punjab.html, last viewed 22/08/2011
17. J.S. Grewal, The Sikhs of Punjab, (Cambridge University Press, 1990), p184
18. Sreeradha Datta, Northeast Turmoil: Vital Determinants, http://www.idsa-india.org/an-mar00-8.html, last viewed 22/08/2011
19. Hamza Alvi, The rise of religious fundamentalism in Pakistan, http://hamzaalavi.wordpress.com/2010/02/07/the-rise-of-religious-fundamentalism-in-pakistan/, last viewed 22/08/2011
20. Ravinder Kaur, The second migration: Displacement and Refugees from Rawalpindi during partition, http://www.global.ucsb.edu/punjab/14.1_Kaur.pdf, last viewed 22/08/2011
21. Vikhar Ahmed Sayeed, The Muhajirs in the promised land, http://infochangeindia.org/agenda/migration-displacement/the-muhajirs-in-the-promised-land.html,
22. Stephen P. Cohen, The idea of Pakistan (The brookings Institution, 2004), p212

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  • Role of U.P, C.P Mafia in Disintegration of Punjab and Pakistan

    U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture is the major and actual crowd in Punjab that is a hindrance in imposing Punjabi as an educational and official language in Punjab and the languages of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Balochis as National languages.

    U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture is also a powerful barrier between the better social, economical, administrative and political relationship, trust and stability of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Balochis along with the Sons of Punjabi Soil i.e. Majha Punjabis, Pothohari Punjabis, Jangli Punjabis, Jhangochi Punjabis, Shahpuri Punjabis, Dhani Punjabis and Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis.

    As the Nations are composed by the communities, casts, clans and dialects, likewise, the Punjabi nation in Pakistan has Majhi, Pothohari, Jangli, Jhangochi, Shahpuri, Dhani and Saraiki/‏Multani dialects along with their own dialect land, dialect language, dialect culture and dialect traditions in Punjab.

    Majha and Pothohari Punjabi dialects and areas are more urbanized and advance, they are mostly engaged in business, industry, military, civil and skilled services. Due to the domination of U.P, C.P Mafia in urban centers of Punjab and sectors of business, industry, military, civil and skilled services, their business and social activities dominate the preference of Gunga Jumna culture and Urdu language

    Whereas Jangli, Jhangochi, Shahpuri, Dhani and Saraiki/‏Multani dialects and areas are more rural and backward, they are mostly engaged in agricultural, livestock business and unskilled services. Their business and social activities dominate the preference of their dialect culture and language.

    The Majhi dialect is the prestige dialect of Punjabi. It is spoken in the historical region of Majha, centralizing in Lahore and Amritsar.

    Due to the geographical location of Lahore and Amritsar, being the central point for peripheries of Jurda and Lahindā Punjab , the Majhi dialect is a binding force to the other dialects of Punjabi language i.e. Pothohari, Jangli, Hindko, Jhangochi / Rachnavi/ Changvi or Chenavari, Shahpuri, Dhani, Saraiki/‏Multani, (In Pakistani Punjab) Malwi, Doabi, Pwadhi and Dogri dialects (In Indian Punjab).

    Therefore Majhi dialect is considered as the textbook Punjabi and mother of all Punjabi Dialects.

    Hence the ignoring, avoiding and neglecting attempts to the Majha dialect directly lead the other dialects of Punjabi towards the disintegration of Punjab in small pieces and breakdown of Punjabi language into small, localized and new languages.

    However, Majha Punjabis prefer to speak Urdu instead of Punjabi due to their social and business interaction with U.P, C.P Mafia, and mentally under influence of Gunga Jumna Culture.

    They are also used to regret, degrade and hate their own brothers belonging to different dialects of Punjabi, i.e. Pothohari , Jangli, Jhangochi / Rachnavi/ Changvi or Chenavari, Shahpuri, Dhani, Saraiki/‏Multani because of their aptitude according to their dialect culture, traditions and language.

    Historically, the speakers of dialects now recognized as belonging to Saraiki did not hold the belief that they constituted a cohesive language community or a distinct ethnicity.

    This consciousness developed among local elites in the years after the founding of Pakistan in 1947 in response to the social and political upheaval caused by the mass immigration of Urdu speaking refugee Muslims from India along with ignorant and humiliating attitude of Majha Punjabis toward them.

    After division of Punjab, U.P, C.P Mafia arranged, managed and manipulated the affiliation and unification of Muhajir’s and Majha’s under cover, support and shelter of IDP,s from Malwi, Doabi, Pwadhi and Dogri dialects of Punjabis.

    It resulted the dominating of Gunga Jumna Culture and Urdu language along with control of U.P, C.P Mafia in business, industry, military, civil and skilled services, politics and governance of Pakistan by ignoring the actual Sons of Punjabi Soil i.e. Jangli, Jhangochi / Rachnavi/ Changvi or Chenavari, Shahpuri, Dhani, Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis and other actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Bengalis, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Balochis.

    It was the begging of detachment between the Sons of Punjabi Soil and the actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Bengalis, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Balochis due to domination of aliens with support of Majha Punjabis and IDP’s on soil of Pakistan.

    Majha Punjabis forget that, in united India all the Muslim, Hindu, Sikh and Christian Punjabis were a nation because of common land, language, culture, traditions, race, etc. The religion was a personal subject whereas; clans and communities were the institutions for social interaction and charity work.

    Punjab was a secular region and Punjabi was a respectable and honorable language, culture and nation in India, but in 19th century due to politics of congress dominated by Hindi speaking leaders. Hindu Punjabis started preferring Hindi language, culture and traditions instead of Punjabi. Later on, Muslim Punjabis did the same due to influence of Muslim League, dominated by Urdu speaking Muslim leaders.

    Because of preferring the Hindi language, culture and traditions by Hindu Punjabis and Urdu language, culture and traditions by Muslim Punjabis, “A Great Nation Got Divided by the Clans of Same Nation”.

    However, after creation of Pakistan once again the history started to repeat the cycle. The U.P and C.P Mafia, belonging to Gunga Jumna culture find the place in Pakistan, especially in urban centers of Punjab and Sindh from Rawalpindi to Karachi and started to dominate and rule the actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations by dividing them through backbiting, scandalizing and manipulating them against each other, along with insulting and humiliating the rural masses by declaring them as illiterate and immoral animals because of their language dialect, culture and traditions.

    Initially at the time of print media the U.P and C.P Mafia had total control of print media to suppress the voice of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations and Son of Punjabi Soil i.e. Majha Punjabis, Pothohari Punjabis, Jangli Punjabis, Jhangochi Punjabis, Shahpuri Punjabis, Dhani Punjabis and Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis; later on they also managed the control of electronic media but now in era of net media they are again finding the way to control the net media to keep the actual entities of Pakistan disassociated, disable and disintegrated.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” is the actual virus in the stability, integrity and harmony of Pakistan and hindrance in brotherhood of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations and the son of Punjabi soil i.e. Majha Punjabis, Pothohari Punjabis, Jangli Punjabis, Jhangochi Punjabis, Shahpuri Punjabis, Dhani Punjabis and Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” is the major and actual crowd in Punjab that is a hindrance in imposition of Punjabi as an educational and official language in Punjab along with social, economical, administrative and political justice with Jangli, Punjabis, Jhangochi Punjabis, Shahpuri Punjabis, Dhani Punjabis and Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis. ; as a result the sons of Punjabi soil are on the way of disputes, distrust and disintegration into distinct ethnicity as Majhi, Pothohari, Jangli, Jhangochi, Shahpuri, Dhani and Saraiki/‏Multani.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has a typical autocratic, dominating and dictatorial mindset.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” is a powerful barrier between the better relationship of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right to decide that what should be language of Punjab.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right to oppose the Punjabi as an educational and official language of Punjab.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right to decide that what should be National languages of Pakistan.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right to dictate the Punjabis that what types of relationship of Punjabis are necessary with the other actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right to be a barrier between the brotherhood and better relationship of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right of criticism to any other actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch.

    I request the Intellectuals of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhis, Pukhtoon’s and Balochis in general and especially the son of Punjabi soil i.e. Majha Punjabis, Pothohari Punjabis, Jangli Punjabis, Jhangochi Punjabis, Shahpuri Punjabis, Dhani Punjabis and Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis, to brainstorm on my view and contradict with logic and intellect, if my point of view is wrong, so that I may be able to refine my thoughts or approve my views with logic and intellect, if my point of view is right, so that I may be able to proceed it.

    But ………. For God Sack ………. Don’t try to dictate, preach and twist the topic, likewise the U.P, C.P Gunga Jumna mafia technique or tactics.

    I will be grateful for intellectual suggestions and cooperation.

    Regards,
    Political Wisdom
    Owner “Punjabi Think Tank”
    punjab@groups.facebook.com

  • Lawrence of Arabia” in Punjab

    After creation of Pakistan, Punjabis IDP’s shifted from eastern part of Punjab to western part of Punjab, because the land of Punjabis was divided as the result of Pakistan.

    Indian Muslims were to stay in India, but Liaquat Ali Khan, one of U.P belonging ML leader, was not even elected from any part of United India become Prime Minister of Pakistan and manipulated to shift Indian Muslims from India to Pakistan for requirement of electoral constituencies and control the Pakistani establishment, business, media and politics.

    Majority of Muslims from India were transferred from south western part of India i.e. Rajasthan and Gujrat to Sindh and southern Punjab, from northern part of India i.e. U.P, C.P to urban areas of central and northern Punjab i.e. Lahore and Rawalpindi, southern cities of Sindh i.e. Karachi and Hyderabad. Whereas most of the Biharis were transferred to East Pakistan and after fall of Dhaka they were shifted in Karachi.

    U.P, C.P Gunga mafia from urban areas of central and northern Punjab i.e. Lahore and Rawalpindi; is the master mind people. They always played the role like “Lawrence of Arabia” in Punjab.

    Initially at the time of print media the U.P and C.P Mafia had total control of print media to suppress the voice of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations and Son of Punjabi Soil i.e. Majha Punjabis, Pothohari Punjabis, Jangli Punjabis, Jhangochi Punjabis, Shahpuri Punjabis, Dhani Punjabis and Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis; later on they also managed the control of electronic media but now in era of net media they are again finding the way to control the net media to keep the actual entities of Pakistan disassociated, disable and disintegrated.

    According to my point of view, This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” is the actual virus in the stability, integrity and harmony of Pakistan and hindrance in brotherhood of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations and the son of Punjabi soil i.e. Majha Punjabis, Pothohari Punjabis, Jangli Punjabis, Jhangochi Punjabis, Shahpuri Punjabis, Dhani Punjabis and Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis.

    The dream of this “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture from urban areas of central and northern Punjab i.e. Lahore and Rawalpindi, southern cities of Sindh i.e. Karachi and Hyderabad is an autonomous land for Muhajir’s to rule the actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations by the U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture and since the creation of Pakistan for the task their target was Karachi.

    Political Wisdom
    Owner “Punjabi Think Tank”
    punjab@groups.facebook.com

  • Legal and Moral Status of Muhajir’s from U.P, CP in Pakistan

    Legal and Moral Status and presence of (7.57%) population of Muhajir’s from U.P, CP in Sindh and Punjab needs discussion in parameters of legal and moral authority; it is still pending after 64 years of creation of Pakistan.

    As for my information’s are concerned they are not IDP’s like Punjabis from eastern part of Punjab, the land of Punjabis was divided as the result of Pakistan.
    They are also not immigrants under the immigration law of Pakistan.

    They don’t have the shelter of law as refugees from U.P, CP, in Pakistan.

    The greatest violation of human rights is manifested for the last 64 years. Nobody cares.

    The people living without any identities are conquering Pakistan?

    The people living without any identities are breeding the criminals, terrorists and beggars in Pakistan?
    Pakistan is a banana state or there is any law exists here?

    What is a failed state then?

    I will be grateful for intellectual suggestions and cooperation.

    Regards,
    Political Wisdom
    Owner “Punjabi Think Tank”
    punjab@groups.facebook.com

  • The U.P, C.P Black Sheep Traced in Punjabi Crowd

    I pasted the two (2) postings on wall;
    My First Posting was;

    I have a Question for all the honorable supports of PML (N)

    Nawaz Sharif is a National leader. Being a patriotic Pakistani he speak Urdu for the coordination with other Nationalities i.e. Sindhi, Baloch and Pukhtoon.
    As a matter of fact it is a false presumption and illogical practice since the creation of Pakistan because, before the creation of Pakistan, the actual son of soil from Punjab, Sindh, KP and Balochistan were used to interact without the compulsion of Urdu, so what is the need of Urdu to adopt for interaction. This practice is a poison for the actual languages of Pakistani Soil.
    However ……. May question is related with PML (N) Chief Minister of Punjab.

    What is wrong with Shahbaz Sharif…..?

    Why he avoid speaking Punjabi in Punjab?

    Punjab Da C.M Shahbaz Sharif, Punjab Vich V Punjabi Kion Naen Bolda?

    O Punjab Da Naen Pakistan Da C.M A

    O Durda A

    O Shurmanda A

    O Ghubranda A

    O Nu Punjabi Aandi E Naen

    My Second Posting was;

    Mr. Palejo is a mature politician and real voice of Sindh; he has friendly and nice relations with Punjabi Intellectuals of Sindh: http://t.co/Z4r0dBw

    I will suggest the Punjabi intellectuals, writers and politicians from Punjab to understand the intellects of Mr. Palejo; it will help to diffuse the distrust and dispute between Sindh and Punjab.

    Shahzad Nasir is also a Punjabi, he is from Karachi and also a journalist, he had an interview with Mr. Palejo and spends many hours with him, he seconded my views on wall of “Punjabi Think Tank”. But Khalid Iqbal started feeling very fanatic.

    I am Political Wisdom, I request the friends those are aware with conversation of Khalid Iqbal with Political Wisdom to please read the conversation of Khalid Iqbal with Political Wisdom on “Punjabi Think Tank” wall and inform me that where and what I did wrong with Khalid Iqbal so that he is losing his patience and behaving like an autocratic fool.

    Khalid Iqbal is an Owner of “PUNJABI” Group on Facebook but I presumed that he is not a Punjabi. He is from Punjab but actually he is a “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture/ an Urdu speaking refugees living in Punjab and on the name of Punjab and Punjabi playing his as usual role to confront the actual Nations of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Bloch.

    For conformation I requested the friends to write in Punjabi and ask him to reply in Punjabi. If he will not be able to do it, then it will prove that he is a “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture/ an Urdu speaking refugees living in Punjab. Because they speak Punjabi very well but they are not able to write it.

    Later on Khalid Iqbal Owner of “PUNJABI” Group on Facebook admitted that he is a “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” but he has shunned his culture and adopted the land and culture of Punjab.

    If he has shunned his culture then he was also supposed to shun his mentality and bossing attitude also. He was needed to keep in mind that he is a refuge mafia living on land of Punjab.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” had no right to decide that what will be the language of Punjab.
    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” had no right to oppose the Punjabi as an educational and official language of Punjab.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” had no right to dictate the Punjabis that what types of relationship of Punjabis are necessary with the other actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Balochis.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” had no right to be a barrier between the better relationship of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” had no right of criticism to any other actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Balochis.

    Actually this “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” is the major and actual crowd in Punjab that is a hindrance in imposing Punjabi as an educational and official language in Punjab and a powerful barrier between the better relationship of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” had no right of criticism on Mr. Rasool Bux Palejo, one of the honorable and respectable Sindhi Nationalist leader, continuously hammering the brains of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations that actual virus in the stability, integrity and harmony of Pakistan and hindrance in brotherhood of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations are these U.P and C.P Mafia, belonging to Gunga Jumna Culture.

    Majha Punjabis forget that, in united India all the Muslim, Hindu, Sikh and Christian Punjabis were a nation because of common land, language, culture, traditions, race, etc. The religion was a personal subject whereas; clans and communities were the institutions for social interaction and charity work.

    Punjab was a secular region and Punjabi was a respectable and honorable language, culture and nation in India, but in 19th century due to politics of congress dominated by Hindi speaking leaders. Hindu Punjabis started preferring Hindi language, culture and traditions instead of Punjabi. Later on, Muslim Punjabis did the same due to influence of Muslim League, dominated by Urdu speaking Muslim leaders.

    Because of preferring the Hindi language, culture and traditions by Hindu Punjabis and Urdu language, culture and traditions by Muslim Punjabis, “A Great Nation Got Divided by the Clans of Same Nation”.

    However, after creation of Pakistan once again the history started to repeat the cycle. The U.P and C.P Mafia, belonging to Gunga Jumna culture find the place in Pakistan, especially in urban centers of Punjab and Sindh from Rawalpindi to Karachi and started to dominate and rule the actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations by dividing them through backbiting, scandalizing and manipulating them against each other, along with insulting and humiliating the rural masses by declaring them as illiterate and immoral animals because of their language dialect, culture and traditions.

    Initially at the time of print media the U.P and C.P Mafia had total control of print media to suppress the voice of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations and Son of Punjabi Soil i.e. Majha Punjabis, Pothohari Punjabis, Jangli Punjabis, Jhangochi Punjabis, Shahpuri Punjabis, Dhani Punjabis and Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis; later on they also managed the control of electronic media but now in era of net media they are again finding the way to control the net media to keep the actual entities of Pakistan disassociated, disable and disintegrated.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” is the actual virus in the stability, integrity and harmony of Pakistan and hindrance in brotherhood of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch Nations and the son of Punjabi soil i.e. Majha Punjabis, Pothohari Punjabis, Jangli Punjabis, Jhangochi Punjabis, Shahpuri Punjabis, Dhani Punjabis and Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” is the major and actual crowd in Punjab that is a hindrance in imposing Punjabi as an educational and official language in Punjab; as a result the son of Punjabi soil is on the way of disputes, distrust and disintegration into Majhi, Pothohari, Jangli, Jhangochi, Shahpuri, Dhani and Saraiki/‏Multani.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” is also a powerful barrier between the better relationship of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right to decide that what will be language of Punjab.
    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right to oppose the Punjabi as an educational and official language of Punjab.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right to dictate the Punjabis that what types of relationship of Punjabis are necessary with the other actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right to be a barrier between the better relationship of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch.

    This “U.P, C.P Mafia of Gunga Jumna Culture” has no right of criticism to any other actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Baloch.

    I request the Intellectuals of actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindhis, Pukhtoon’s and Balochis in general and especially the son of Punjabi soil i.e. Majha Punjabis, Pothohari Punjabis, Jangli Punjabis, Jhangochi Punjabis, Shahpuri Punjabis, Dhani Punjabis and Saraiki/‏Multani Punjabis, to brainstorm on my view and contradict with logic and intellect, if my point of view is wrong, so that I may be able to refine my thoughts or approve my views with logic and intellect, if my point of view is right, so that I may be able to proceed it. But don’t try to dictate, preach and twist the topic like U.P, C.P Gunga Jumna mafia.

    I will be grateful for intellectual suggestions and cooperation.

    Regards,
    Political Wisdom
    Owner “Punjabi Think Tank”
    punjab@groups.facebook.com

  • Punjabi Language and Major Punjabi Dialects

    Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region (north western India and in Pakistan). For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. Even though Punjabi is the most spoken language in Pakistan, it has no official status.

    According to the Ethnologue 2005 estimate, there are 88 million native speakers of the Punjabi language, which makes it approximately the 12th most widely spoken language in the world. According to the 2008 Census of Pakistan, there are 76,335,300 native Punjabi speakers in Pakistan and according to the 2001 Census of India, there are 29,102,477 Punjabi speakers in India.

    Punjabi language has many different dialects, spoken in the different sub-regions of greater Punjab. Since the Partition of British India in 1947, the Punjabi spoken in the two countries has deviated from each other, with Pakistanis retaining strong on Persian and Arabic vocabulary through Urdu, and Indians relying more heavily on Sanskrit vocabulary through Hindi.

    The Majhi dialect is the prestige dialect of Punjabi. It is spoken in the historical region of Majha, centralizing in Lahore and Amritsar. Due to the geographical location of Lahore and Amritsar, being the central point for peripheries of Jurdga and Lahindā Punjab , the Majhi dialect is a binding force to the other dialects of Punjabi language i.e. Pothohari, Hindko, Jhangochi / Rachnavi/ Changvi or Chenavari, Shahpuri, Dhani, Saraiki/‏Multani, Malwi, Doabi, Pwadhi and Dogri dialects, therefore Majhi dialect is considered as the textbook Punjabi.

    In the 20th century, the Punjabi-speaking Sikhs started attaching importance to the Punjabi written in the Gurmukhi script as a symbol of their distinct identity. The Punjabi identity was affected by the communal sentiments in the 20th century. Bhai Vir Singh, a major figure in the movement for the revival of Punjabi literary tradition, started insisting that the Punjabi language was the exclusive preserve of the Sikhs.

    After the partition of India, the Punjab region was divided between Pakistan and India. Although the Punjabi people formed the 2nd biggest linguistic group in Pakistan after Bengali, Urdu was declared the national language of Pakistan, and Punjabi did not get any official status. The Indian Punjab, which then also included what are now Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, became Hindi-majority.

    In the 1960s, the Shiromani Akali Dal proposed “Punjabi Suba”, a state for Punjabi speakers in India. The Sikh leader Fateh Singh tactically stressed the linguistic basis of the demand, while downplaying the religious basis for the demand—a state where the distinct Sikh identity could be preserved. The movement for a Punjabi Suba led to trifurcation of Indian Punjab into three states: Punjab (India), Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

    In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 languages with official status in India. It is the first official language of Punjab (India). In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most spoken language and is the provincial language of Punjab (Pakistan) the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan.

    Punjabi is the most spoken language of Pakistan. Punjabi is spoken as first language by over 44.15% of Pakistanis. Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in the country. Punjabis are dominant in key institutions such as business, agriculture, industry, government; army, navy; air force, and police, because of that about 70% of Pakistanis can understand or speak Punjabi.

    The Punjabis found in Pakistan are composed of various social groups, castes and economic groups. Muslim Rajputs, Jat, Tarkhans, Dogars, Gujjars, Gakhars, Khatri or Punjabi Shaikhs, Kambohs, and Arains, comprise the main tribes in the north, while Awans, Gilanis, Gardezis, Syeds and Quraishis are found in the south.
    There are Pashtun tribes like the Niazis and the lodhis, which are very much integrated into Punjabi village life. People in major urban areas have diverse origins, with many post-Islamic settlers tracing their origin to Afghanistan, Persia, Turkey, Arabia and Central Asia.
    Census History of Punjabi Speakers in Pakistan

    Year Population of Pakistan Percentage Punjabi Speakers
    1951 33,740,167 57.08% 22,632,905
    1961 42,880,378 56.39% 28,468,282
    1972 65,309,340 56.11% 43,176,004
    1981 84,253,644 48.17% 40,584,980
    1998 132,352,279 44.15% 58,433,431
    In the National Census of Pakistan (1981) Saraiki, Pothohari and Hindko (Before categorized as “Western Punjabi”) got the status of separate languages that’s why number of Punjabi speakers got decreased.
    Provinces of Pakistan by Punjabi speakers (2008)

    Rank Division Punjabi speakers Percentage
    – Pakistan 76,335,300 44.15%
    1 Punjab 70,671,704 75.23%
    2 Sindh 3,592,261 6.99%
    3 Islamabad Capital Territory 1,343,625 71.66%
    4 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 396,085 0.97%
    5 Balochistan 318,745 2.52%
    6 Federally Administered Tribal Areas 12,880 0.23%

    India

    Punjabi is spoken as a native language by over 2.85% of Indians. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab.

    The Punjabis found in India are composed of various ethnic groups, tribal groups, social groups (caste) and economic groups. Some major sub-groups of Punjabis in India include Ahirs, Arora, Bania, Bhatia, Brahmin, Chamar, Gujjar, Kalals/Ahluwalias, Kambojs, Khatris, Lobanas, Jats, Rajputs, Saini, Sood and Tarkhan. Most of these groups can be further sub-divided into clans and family groups.

    Most of East Punjab’s Muslims (in today’s states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Chandigarh) left for West Punjab in 1947. However, a small community still exists today, mainly in Malerkotla, the only Muslim princely state among the seven that formed the erstwhile Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). The other six (mostly Sikh) states were: Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, Kapurthala and Kalsia.

    Census History of Punjabi Speakers In India

    Year Population of India Punjabi Speakers in India Percentage
    1971 548,159,652 14,108,443 2.57%
    1981 665,287,849 19,611,199 2.95%
    1991 838,583,988 23,378,744 2.79%
    2001 1,028,610,328 29,102,477 2.83%

    Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom (where it is the second most commonly used language) and Canada, where in recent times Punjabi has grown fast and has now become the fourth most spoken language.

    Countries by number of Punjabi speakers

    Rank Country First language
    1 Pakistan 76,335,300
    2 India 29,109,672
    3 United Kingdom 500,000
    4 Canada 300,000
    5 United Arab Emirates 200,000
    6 United States 200,000
    7 Saudi Arabia 100,000
    8 Hong Kong 100,000
    9 Kingdom of Sarawak 185,000
    10 South Africa 30,000
    11 Burma 120,000
    12 France 90,000
    13 Greece 80,000
    14 Thailand 75,000
    15 Japan 75,000
    16 Mauritius 70,000
    17 Singapore
    70,000
    18 Oman 68,000
    19 Libya 65,000
    20 Bahrain 60,000
    21 Kenya 55,000
    22 Australia 50,000
    23 Tanzania 45,000
    24 Kuwait 40,000
    25 Germany 35,000

    In modern India, the states are largely designed to encompass the territories of major languages with an established written standard. Thus Indian Punjab is the Punjabi language state (in fact, the neighboring state of Haryana, which was part of Punjab state in 1947, was split off from it because it is a Hindi speaking region). Some of its major urban centers are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, and Patiala.

    In Pakistan, the Punjabi speaking territory spans the east-central districts of Punjab Province Lahore, Rawalpindi, Faislabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Jhang, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Bahawalnagar, Multan, Jhelum and Gujrat.

    Lahore the historic capital of Punjab is the largest Punjabi speaking city in the world. Lahore has 86% native Punjabis of total population of the city and Islamabad the Capital of Pakistan has 71% Native Punjabis of total population.

    Major Punjabi dialects

    1. Majhi Punjabi

    The Majhi dialect is the prestige dialect of Punjabi’s and spoken in the heart of Punjab where most of the Punjabi population lives. The Majhi dialect, the dialect of the historical region of Majha, spans the Lahore, Sheikhupura, Kasur, Okara, Gujranwala, Wazirabad, Sialkot, Narowal, Gujrat and to some extant in Jhelum District of Pakistani Punjab and Amritsar, Tarn Taran Sahib, and Gurdaspur Districts of the Indian State of Punjab.

    2. Pothowari Punjabi

    This Pothowari dialect is spoken in north area of Pakistani Punjab. It extends in the north from Muzaffarabad to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khan, Rawalpindi, Murree Hills (north of Rawalpindi), and east to Bhimber. Poonchi is east of Rawalakot. Potwari is in the plains around Rawalpindi.

    Alternate names: Potwari, Pothohari, Potohari, Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali. Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Jhelumi, Mirpuri.

    Pahari means ‘hill language’ referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. Pahari is a dialect chain with Panjabi and Hindko. Closeness to western Pahari is unknown. Lexical similarity 76% to 83% among varieties called ‘Pahari’, ‘Potwari’, and some called ‘Hindko’ in Mansehra, Muzaffarabad, and Jammun.

    3. Hindko Punjabi

    Classified under Lahnda languages by many linguists; perhaps differs from Punjabi. Hindko dialect is spoken in north west Pakistani Punjab and North-West Frontier Province mainly this dialect is spoken in districts of Peshawar, Attock, Nowshehra, Mansehra, Balakot, Abbottabad and Murree and the lower half of Neelum District and Muzaffarabad.

    4. Jhangochi /Rachnavi/Changvi or Chenavari Punjabi

    Jhangochi dialect is spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Jhangochi or Rachnavi is the oldest and most idiosyncratic dialect of the Punjabi.

    It is spoken throughout a widespread area, starting from Khanewal and Jhang at both ends of Ravi and Chenab to Gujranwala district. It then runs down to Bahawalnagar and Chishtian areas, on the banks of river Sutlej. This entire area has almost the same traditions, customs and culture.

    The Jhangochi dialect of Punjabi has several aspects that set it apart from other Punjabi variants. This area has a great culture and heritage, especially literary heritage, as it is credited with the creation of the famous epic romance stories of Heer Ranjha and Mirza Sahiba.

    It is spoken in the Bar areas of Punjab, i.e., areas whose names are often suffixed with ‘Bar’, for example Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar and also from Khanewal to Jhang includes Faisalabad and Chiniot.

    5. Shahpuri Punjabi

    The Shahpuri dialect has been spoken by the people of the town Shahpur. This dialect has a slight element of Saraiki and Pothohari. This language has been spoken by the people of District Sargodha including Dera Chanpeer Shah, Khushab, Mianwali, Attock, Chakwal, Mandi Bahauddin and Jhang. Parts of Faisalabad, Dera Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalnagar districts.

    6. Dhani Punjabi

    The people of Chakwal or the Dhanni area in particular do not speak Pothohari and are ethnologically not regarded as Potoharis. They speak a distinctive Chakwali or Dhanni dialect of Punjabi, which is closer to Shahpuri, a dialect spoken in the Shahpur-Salt Range area.

    7. ‏Multani/ Saraiki Punjabi

    Multani or Saraiki is a mixture of Jhangochi of Punjabi and Sindhi. Saraiki is the new name. For centuries, Multani was in use. It is now considered a separate language instead of merely a dialect of Punjabi.
    Historically, the speakers of dialects now recognized as belonging to Saraiki did not hold the belief that they constituted a cohesive language community or a distinct ethnicity. This consciousness developed among local elites in the years after the founding of Pakistan in 1947 in response to the social and political upheaval caused by the mass immigration of Urdu speaking refugee Muslims from India.

    Saraiki has various sub-dialects such as Derewali, Thalochi, Multani and Riasuti. It is mostly spoken in southern and western districts of Punjab, which comprises Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, Bhakkar, Layyah, Mianwali, western parts of Khushab districts, Multan, Lodhran, southern and western parts of Khanewal, Bahawalpur, southern parts of Bahawalnagar and Rahim Yar Khan.

    More than Saraiki waseb, Saraiki is native language in the districts of Chakwal, Hafizabad, Mandi Bahuddin, Faisalabad, Okara and Toba Teksingh are also Saraiki.
    It is widely spoken and understood as a second language in Northern and Western Sind down to the suburbs of Karachi and in Kachhi plain of Baluchistan.

    In Sindh Saraiki is widely spoken in Kashmore, Jacobabad, Shikarpur, Tando Allahyar, Sobho Khan Mastoi, Kamal Khan Mastoi and Ghotki.

    In Balochistan Saraiki is widely spoken in Barkhan, Naseerabad, Jafarabad and Jhal Magsi.

    In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Saraiki is native language in the districts of Dera Ismail Khan.

    In India Saraiki is spoken in Sirsa, Fatehabad, Hisar, Bhiwani, Panipat districts of Haryana, some area of Delhi and Ganganagar district, Hanumangarh and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan.

    8. Malwi Punjabi

    Malwi dialect is spoken in the eastern part of Indian Punjab. Main areas are Ludhiana, Moga, Sangrur, Barnala, Faridkot, Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib, Mansa, Muktsar, Ambala, Bathinda, Ganganagar, Malerkotla, Ropar, and Ferozepur.

    Malwa is the southern and central part of present day Indian Punjab. It also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana, viz. Ambala, Hissar, Sirsa, Kurukshetra etc. Not to be confused with the Malvi language, this shares its name.

    9. Doabi Punjabi

    Doabi dialect is spoken in Indian Punjab. The word “Do Aabi” means “the land between two rivers” and this dialect is spoken between the rivers of Beas and Sutlej. It includes Jalandhar, Nawanshahr, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur districts.

    10. Pwadhi Punjabi

    Powadh or Puadh or Powadha is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala District (Haryana) is Powadhi.

    The Powadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar District which lies near Satluj up to the Ghaggar River in the east, which separates the states of Punjab and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib District, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are also part of Powadh.

    The Pwadhi dialect is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura, and Samrala are the areas where the Puadhi language is spoken and the area itself is claimed as including from Pinjore, Kalka to Bangar area in Hisar district which includes even Nabha and Patiala in it.

    11. Dogri Punjabi

    Although Dogri is generally considered a separate language having its own vocabulary, some sources consider it a dialect of Punjabi. It is spoken by about 3.5 million peoples in the Jammu region of India.

    The “Lahnda” construct

    The name “Punjab” means “5 waters” in Persian (panj ab) and refers to five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The historical Punjab region, now divided between Pakistan and India, is defined physio-graphically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. The bulk of the Panjab, 3.5 rivers are located in Pakistan. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej River, and lies entirely in present day India, well within the eastern half of historical Punjab.

    The British linguist George Abraham Grierson came to the conclusion that a group of dialects known collectively as “western Punjabi” or Lahnda spoken north and west of the Punjab heartland, in the Indus valley itself and on the lower reaches of the other four tributaries (excluding the Beas River), in fact constituted a language distinct from eastern or Jurdga Punjabi.
    He christened this group of dialects “Lahindā” in a volume of the Language Survey of India (LSI) published in 1919. He grouped as “southern Lahnda” the dialects that are now recognized as Multani or Saraiki. The northern Lahnda sub-Group has eveloved into Modern Panjistani (or Pahari/Mirpuri/ Pothohari) and modern Hindko.

    Grierson tentatively identified the boundary between Punjabi and “Lahnda” as a north-south line running from the Gujranwala District to the former Montgomery District (near the town on Sahiwal). This line lies well west of Lahore and within the boundary of Pakistan.
    In the aftermath of the independence of Pakistan and subsequent Partition of 1947, some investigators supposed that the Punjabi speakers in new Pakistan might give up their native dialects and adopt one or another “Lahnda” dialect; but this did not occur.
    Classification by Ethnologue
    Because of the stature of Ethnologue as a widely accepted authority on the identification and classification of dialects and languages, their divergent views of the geographical distribution and dialectal naming of the Punjabi language merit mention.
    They designate what tradition calls “Punjabi” as “Eastern Punjabi” and they have implicitly adopted the belief (contradicted by other specialists) that the language border between “western Panjabi” and “eastern Panjabi” has shifted since 1947 to coincide with the international border.

    Examples

    English Majhi, Standard Punjabi Pothohari Dogri Pahari Multani Doabi
    What are you doing? (masculine) Ki karda ain?/ki karan deya ain?/ki karda pya ain? Ka karne uo? Ke karde o? Ke (kay) peya kare-nanh? ke karende paye o? ki karda aa?
    What are you doing? (masculine to address fem+ale) Ki kardi ain?/ki karan dayi ain?/ki kardi payi ain? Ka karani ay? Ke karani ae? Ke (kay) pai (payi) kare-neenh? ke (kay) karende paye o? ki kardi aa tu?
    How are you? Ki haal ae? Keh aal e? ke aal a? Tudda ke haal e (eh)? keevein haal tuhaade? ki haal chal aa?
    Do you speak Punjabi? Tusi Punjabi Bol lainde o ? Punjabii bolne uo? Punjabi bolde o? Punjabi uburne o? tussan punjabi bol lainde o? tu punjabi bol laena?
    Where are you from? Tusi kithon de o?/Tusi kidron aaye o? Tusa kudhr nay aiyo? Tus kudhr to o? Kathe ne o? tussan kithon de o? kithon aa tu?
    Pleased to meet you Tenu/tuanu mil ke bahut khushi hoyi. Tusan milay tay boo khushi oye Tusan nu miliye bahut khusi oyi Tussan mil ke khushi thi. Tenu/tuanu mil ke bahut khushi thi e. tuhanu mil k bahut khushi hoyi
    What’s your name? Tuada naa ki ae? Tusan naa ke aa? Tusan da naa kay ai? Tudda ke naanh ve? Tuada naa ki ae? tera naam ki aa?
    My name is … Mera naa ain… Mara naa … e Mera naa … e Mainda naanh … eh mainda naa …. e. mera naam aa
    What is your village’s name? Tuade pind/graan da naa ki ae?/ Tuada pind/graan kehda ae? Tusane graana naa ke aa? Tusan da graan kay aa? Tudde gerayenh na ke naanh ve? tuade pind/graan da kay naa ae? tere pind da ki naam aa
    Yes Haanji Aaho Aah Haan haanji hanji
    No Nay Naa Nahin Nayin naa nai
    Would you like (to eat) some sweets? Mithaee lawoge? / Mithaee Khawoge? Mithaee khaso? Kish mithaee khaani e? Kuj mitha khaine o? tussan mithaee ghinso? mitha khaunge tusi?
    I love you. Main tenu pyaar karda haan. Mai tuki pyar karna. Mai tugi pyar karna. Main tuhan pyar kare-nanh. main tenu pyaar karda haan. mai tuhanu pyar karda haan.
    We went to the Cinema Assin Cinema gaye saan. Assa cinema gaye saa As cinema gaye he. Assi cinema gaye ayan. aasan cinema gaye saa. asin cinema gye si.
    Where should I go? Mainu kitthe jana chahida ae? Mai kudhar jaa Migi kuthe jaavnaah? mainu kitthe vanjna chaida ae? mai kithe jawa

    Writing system

    There are several different scripts used for writing the Punjabi language, depending on the region and the dialect spoken, as well as the religion of the speaker.
    In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhi and differs from the standard Nastaʿlīq script as it has four additional letters.

    The eastern part of the Punjab region, located in India, is divided into three states. In the state of Punjab, the Gurmukhī script is generally used for writing Punjabi.

    Punjabi Hindus, who are mainly, concentrated in the neighboring Indian states such of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, sometimes uses the Devanāgarī script to write Punjabi.

    While a Punjabi GCSE is available to students in the United Kingdom; its written exam is in Gurmukhi only.
    Punjabi in modern culture
    Punjabi is becoming more acceptable among Punjabis in modern media and communications. Punjabi has always been an integral part of Indian Bollywood cinema.

    In recent years a trend of Bollywood songs written totally in Punjabi can be observed. Punjabi pop and folk songs are very popular both in India and Pakistan at the national level. A number of television dramas based on Punjabi characters are telecast by different channels.

    The number of students opting for Punjabi literature has increased in Pakistani Punjab. Punjabi cinema in India has also seen a revival and more and more Punjabi movies are being produced. Punjabi music is very popular in modern times.

    Political Wisdom
    Owner “Punjabi Think Tank”
    punjab@groups.facebook.com

  • The ethnic tensions have now reached a boiling point. It is imperative that the issues should be resolved by bringing the communities together.

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