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Ahmad Shah Durrani Abdali and Shah Waliullah: Pioneers of Takfirism and Shia Genocide in South Asia – by Abdul Nishapuri

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Related posts: Why are Pashtun nationalists mute on Deobandi ideology and identity of TTP-ASWJ terrorists? – See more at: https://lubpak.net/archives/306125

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Shah Waliullah’s links with Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab – by Allama Muhammad Umar Icharwi – See more at: https://lubpak.net/archives/313032

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Shah Waliullah (a hero of Deobandi and Takfiri clerics) wrote letters to Ahmad Shah Durrani (or Ahmad Shah Abdali, a hero of many Deobandi Pashtuns) to come and kill both Hindu Marhattas (Marathas) and Shia Muslims in Delhi. (Reference: Sayyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, ‘Shah Waliullah and his times’, Ma’rifat publishing house 1980, page 306).

By the end of 1759, Ahmad Shah Abdali with his Afghan tribes and his Rohilla ally Najib Khan had reached Lahore as well as Delhi and defeated the smaller enemy garrisons. Many Shias and Hindu Marathas were killed in Delhi by the Durrani’s army. (
http://www.bbc.co.uk/urdu/pakistan/2013/02/130223_shia_sunni_relations_subcont_zs.shtml)

History tells us that Ahmad Shah Durrani massacred thousands of Shia Muslims and Hindus in Kashmir because of local Sunni/Salafi population’s invitation to him to help them undermine the Shia rulers (remanant of Chak dynasty) and Shia population. In middle of the 18th century, when the Mughal Empire had begun its decline, a few Sunni/Salafi Muslim Kashmiri nobles invited Ahmed Shah Abdali, the brutal semi-Salafi ruler of Afghanistan, to liberate their country. Pathans/Pashtuns, like Moghals obliged and over ran Kashmir in 1752. In order to maintain their stranglehold over Kashmir, Abdali’s satraps not only doubled taxes of their impoverished subjects but specifically persecuted the Shia minority with a fanatical vigour as they saw in them a perpetual threat for their puritanical Salafi/Sunni beliefs. Fifty years of Afghan rule were rife with suppression and massacres of Shia Muslims. With Kashgari sowing the seeds of hatred among the Muslim community for political ends Shia’s in Kashmir in subsequent years had to pass through the most atrocious period of their history. Plunder, loot and massacres which came to be known as ‘Taarajs’ virtually devastated the community.

History records 10 such Taarajs also known as ‘Taraj-e-Shia’ in 1548, 1585, 1635, 1686, 1719, 1741, 1762, 1801, 1830, 1872 during which the Shia habitations were plundered, people slaughtered, libraries burnt and their sacred sites desecrated. Such was the reign of terror during this period that the community widely went into the practice of Taqya (temporary or permanent conversion to Sunni sect) in order to preserve their lives and the honour of their womenfolk. Village after village disappeared, with community members either migrating to safety further north or dissolving in the majority faith. The community has yet to recover fully from the shocks of these Taarajs, the last one suffered more than a century ago, and the fear of hidden lurking dangers continues to haunt it to date.(http://edition.presstv.ir/detail.fa/278797.html and http://kashmirobserver.net/news/features/shias-kashmir-socio-political-dilemmas)

Evidence of beheadings of Hindus, Sikhs and Shias by Pashtun Salafist ruler Ahmad Shah Durrani Abadali and his invading thugs. And this happened much before the Saudi, USA, Punjabi establishment’s Deobandi Jihad project in Pashtun areas. History is crue; denial and abuses are the only escape for insecure nationalists.

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After his invastion of Delhi, Ahmed Shah Durrani, withdrew his army to Anupshahr, on the frontier of the Rohilla country, where he using the pan-Islamic discourse, successfully and shrewdly threatened and lured the Shia ruler, Nawab of Oudh Shuja-ud-Daula, to join his alliance against the Hindu Marathas. Shuja-ud-Daula felt threatened by the might of Durrani’s army, and decided to join him. This was in spite of the fact that Hindu Marathas time and again helped and showed sympathy towards Shuja-ud-daula. The Nawab Shuja’s mother was of the opinion that he should join the Marathas. The Marathas had helped Safdarjung (father of Shuja) in defeating Rohillas in Farrukhabad.

However, Shuja decided to join Abdali (Durrani), and was subsequently very much ill-treated in the Abdali camp. Abdali was an Afghan Sunni (semi-Salafi) Muslim and Shuja was a Shia Muslim of Persian origin. Shah Shuja was to regret his decision to join the Afghan forces. In time, his forces became embroiled in clashes between the orthodox Sunni/Salafi Afghans and his own Shia followers. He is alleged to have later secretly sent letters to Bhausaheb through his spies regretting his decision to join Abdali (Vishwas Patel, Panipat, book about Third Battle of Panipat, http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/10147601-panipat)

While Hazara Shia men along with tribes of other ethnic groups had been recruited and added to the army of Ahmad Shah Durrani in the 18th century (just like Pakistan army’s use of Shias of Gilgit Baltistan in NLI in the Kargil war), by the mid‑18th century Hazara Shias were forced out of Helmand and the Arghandab District of Kandahar Province. Ahmad Shah Durrani forced the Mohammad Khwaja and Jaghatu Hazaras under central control and the Behsud Hazaras southwest of Kabul soon followed suit. The Sheikh Ali, Dai Zangi, Dai Kundi, and Jaghuri were pacified and left under the control of their own mirs, the elders of the tribe.

http://www.tribalanalysiscenter.com/PDF-TAC/The%20Hazara%20Wars.pdf

By and large, Muslim intellectuals in Pakistan and India have eulogized Waliullah that he was deeply hurt with the plight of his community particularly after “Nadir Shah’s sack of Delhi and the Maratha, Jat and Sikh depredation” (The Muslim Community of Indo-Pakistan subcontinent by Istiaq Hussain Qureshi, 1985, page 199). But they ignored the communal bias of Waliullah, for whom Maratha, Jat and Sikh revolts were “external danger to the community”. Waliullah hated Nadir Shah for his barbarous invasion but he was more so because of him being a Shia Muslim.

In his letter to Ahmad Shah Durrani/Abdali, Shah Waliullah advised him for “orders prohibiting Holi and Muharram festivals should be issued” exposed his hostility towards both Hindus and Shias. (Shah Wali Allah and his times by Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, 1980, pp. 209-304)

Reminding the Muslim rulers of the dominant role of Muslims even in a multi-religious society Wali Ullah said, “Oh Kings! Allah urges you to draw your swords and not put them back in their sheaths again until Allah has separated the Muslims from the polytheists (Sunni Sufis) and the rebelious Kafirs (Shias, Hindus) and the sinners are made absolutely feeble and helpless” (Ibid. page 299) http://saag.org/paper629

BBC Urdu’s Wusatullah Khan thus writes on Shah Waliullah’s violent, takfiri and sectarian tendencies and also notes how Ahmad Shah Durrani played a key role in the massacres of Shia Muslims in Delhi:

شاہ ولی اللہ اور محمد بن عبدالوہاب سترہ سو تین عیسوی ہیں جزیرہ نما عرب میں محمد بن عبدالوہاب اور ہندوستان میں شاہ ولی اللہ کی پیدائش ہوئی۔ دونوں نے اگلے تین سو برس میں مسلمان دنیا پر گہرے نقوش چھوڑے۔ شاہ ولی اللہ کی تعلیمات نے ان کی وفات کے سو برس بعد دیوبند مکتبِ فکر کی صورت اختیار کی اور محمد بن عبدالوہاب کی دین کو تمام علتوں سے پاک کرنے کی تحریک و تشریح نے ایک طرف خاندانِ سعود کی فکری تعمیر کی اور دوسری طرف خالص پن کے نظریے نے شدت اختیار کرتے کرتے سلفی رخ لے لیا جس نے آگے چل کر تکفیری فلسفے کی شکل میں القاعدہ کو جنم دیا اور پھر اس دھارے میں دیگر شیعہ مخالف دھارے بھی ملتے چلے گئے

شاہ ولی اللہ دہلوی شاہ عبدالرحیم کے صاحبزادے تھے اور شاہ عبدالرحیم اورنگ زیب عالمگیر کے فتاویِ عالمگیری کے مرتبین میں شامل تھے۔جب شاہ ولی اللہ نے آنکھ کھولی تو ہندوستان میں مغل سورج ڈوب رہا تھا۔ شاہ ولی اللہ نے لگ بھگ دس برس کا عرصہ عرب میں گذارا۔ اگرچہ انکی محمد بن عبدالوہاب سے براہِ راست ملاقات نہیں ہوئی تاہم دونوں کے کچھ اساتذہ مشترک ضرور رہے۔ شاہ ولی اللہ ہندوستان میں مسلمانوں کے سیاسی و حکومتی زوال پر خاصے مضطرب تھے ۔انہوں نے اہلِ سنت کے چاروں مکاتیب میں فکری و فقہی ہم آہنگی کی پرزور وکالت کی تاہم فقہِ جعفریہ اس ہم آہنگی سے خارج رکھا گیا۔ انہوں نے مختلف مذہبی موضوعات و مسائل پر اکیاون تصنیفات رقم کیں۔ ایک کتاب قرت العینین میں اہلِ تشیع کو کمزور عقیدے کا فرقہ ثابت کیا گیا

شاہ ولی اللہ نے احمد شاہ ابدالی کو ہندوستان پر حملہ آور ہونے کی جو دعوت دی اس کا مدعا و مقصد نہ صرف بڑھتی ہوئی مرہٹہ طاقت کا زور توڑنا بلکہ دہلی سے رافضی اثرات ختم کرنا بھی تھا۔چنانچہ جب ابدالی حملہ آور ہوا تو اس نے دہلی میں اہلِ تشیع کو بطورِ خاص نشانہ بنایا۔ شاہ ولی اللہ کے صاحبزادے شاہ عبدالعزیز محدث دہلوی بھی بلند پایہ عالم تھے لیکن اثنا عشری عقائد کے بارے میں انکے خیالات اپنے والد کی نسبت زیادہ سخت تھے ۔اس کا اندازہ انکی تصنیف تحفہِ اثنا عشریہ پڑھ کے بھی ہوسکتا ہے

جہاں تک ہندوستان میں وہابی عقائد کی ترویج کا معاملہ ہے تو ان کی اشاعت بہت بعد میں شروع ہوئی اور پہلا اہم مرکز ریاست بھوپال بنا جب محمد بن عبدالوہاب کے افکار سے متاثر ایک سرکردہ عالم صدیق علی خان کی انیسویں صدی کی آخری چوتھائی میں بھوپال کی حکمراں شاہجہاں بیگم سے شادی ہوئی اور وہابی فکر کو ریاستی سرپرستی میسر آگئی تاہم بریلوی اور دیوبندی مکتبِ فکر کو ہندوستان کی سرزمین جتنی راس آئی ویسی مقبولیت وہابی نظریات کو حاصل نا ہوسکی۔ البتہ آزادی کے بعد شیعہ سنی تعلقات کے تناظر میں وہابی و دیوبندی مکتبِ فکر نے عمومی زہن پر مخصوص اثرات مرتب کیے وقت گذرنے کے ساتھ ساتھ آج تک وہ اثرات کس کس شکل میں ظاہر ہوئے ہیں۔یہ کوئی راز نہیں ہے۔

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/urdu/pakistan/2013/02/130223_shia_sunni_relations_subcont_zs.shtml

See more at: https://lubpak.net/archives/245395

Ahmed Shah Durrani is also notorious for holocaust of Sikhs in Punjab. When Ahmad Shah Durrani returned for a sixth campaign of conquest (his fifth being in 1759-61), tens of thousands of Sikhs including women and children were mercilessly slaughtered by his forces. In the twilight of dawn, Durrani and his allies surprised the Sikhs, who numbered about 50,000, most of them noncombatants. It was decided that the Sikh fighters would form a cordon around the slow-moving baggage train consisting of women, children and old men. They would then make their way to the desert in the south-west by the town of Barnala, where they expected their ally Alha Singh of Patiala to come to their rescue. An eye witness account describes the Sikhs. “Fighting while moving and moving while fighting, they kept the baggage train marching, covering it as a hen covers its chicks under its wings.” More than once, the troops of the invader broke the cordon and mercilessly butchered the women, children and elderly inside, but each time the Sikh warriors regrouped and managed to push back the attackers. By early afternoon, the large fighting cavalcade reached a big pond, the first they had come across since morning. Suddenly the bloodletting ceased as the two forces, man and beast, resorted to the water to quench their thirst and relax their tired limbs. From that point on, the two forces went their separate ways. The Afghan forces, who had inflicted terrible human losses on the Sikh nation, and had in turn suffered many killed and wounded, were exhausted, having not had any rest in two days. While the living remainder of the Sikhs proceeded into the semi-desert toward Barnala, Ahmad Shah Durrani’s army returned to the capital of Lahore with hundreds of Sikhs in chains. From the capital, Durrani returned to Amritsar and blew up the Harimandir Sahib which since 1757 the Sikhs had rebuilt. As an act of intended sacrilege, the pool around it was filled with cow carcasses It was estimated that 25,000 to 30,000 Sikhs were killed on that horrific day of 5 February 1762. As it is doubtful their entire population would have numbered 100,000, it means one third to a half of all Sikhs perished. The Sikhs were not the only people who were targeted.

(Sardar Singh Bhatia, “Vadda Ghallughara”, The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Volume IV, Patiala, Punjabi University, 1998; Syad Muhammad Latif, The History of Punjab from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time, New Delhi, Eurasia Publishing House (Pvt.) Ltd., 1964, p. 283; Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume I: 1469-1839, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1978; Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume I: 1469-1839, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1978, p. 154-55; Sardar Singh Bhatia, “Vadda Ghallughara”, The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Volume IV, Patiala, Punjabi University, 1998, pp. 396; Syad Muhammad Latif, The History of Punjab from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time, New Delhi, Eurasia Publishing House (Pvt.) Ltd., 1964, p. 283.)

The puritanical, revivalist Deobandi movement was inspired by the pan-Sunni and semi-Salafi ideology of Shah Waliullah (1703–1762), while the foundation of Darul Uloom Deoband was laid on 30 May 1866. Shah Waliullah was, in turn, influenced by Ibn Taymiyyah, who also inspired Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahab, the founder of Wahabism in Saudi Arabia. Deobandi scholars adopted Shah Waliullah (1703-1762) as their spiritual patron and were particularly inspired by his Darul Harb (place of war) violent Jihadi ideology.

Annemarie Schimmel in her book, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, tells us that that Shah Waliullah, the spititual forefather of the Deobandis, in his youth was greatly inspired by the anti-innovation, anti-Shiite thought of Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi (aka Mujaddid Alf Sani). It seems that the antecedents of Shah Waliullah were derived from a Salafist and Naqshbandi inspiration while his followers were inclined by his teachings to Wahabism. Shah Waliullah also invited Pashtun ruler of Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Abdali encouraging him to do violent Jihad against Hindus and Shias of India. This sowed the seeds of a tripartite Deobandi-Wahabi-Naqshbandi alliance that has now come into being. In Pakistan, the alliance is particulary manifested in the Deobandi-Wahhabi alliance. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Islam-Indian-Subcontinent-Handbuch-Orientalistik/dp/9004061177

https://lubpak.net/archives/280211

Noted historian Dr. Tara Chand remarks:

“He (Wali Ullah) appealed to Najib-ud-Daulah, Nizamul Mulk and Ahmad Shah Abdali – all three the upholders of condemned system – to intervene and restore the pristine glory of Islam. It is amazing that he should have placed his trust in Ahmad Shah Abdali, who had ravaged the fairest provinces of the Mogul empire, had plundered the Hindus and Muslims without the slightest compunction and above all, who was an upstart without any root among his own people” (History of the Freedom Movement of India, volume I, 1970, page 180).

Even though the defeat of Hindu Marathas by Abdali could not halt the sliding decline of Mogul Empire, it made Wali Ullah the hero of Indian Muslims and he emerged as main inspiring force for Muslim politics in this country. His Islamic thought was regarded as saviour of the faith and its impact left a deep imprint on Indian Muslim psyche, which continues to inspire them even today. Almost all the Muslim organisations in this country directly or indirectly draw their political inspiration from Wali Ullah.

Wali Ullah died in 1762 but his son Abd al Aziz (1746-1823) carried his mission as a result India faced violent communal disorder for decades. Considering Indian subcontinent no longer Dar-ul-Islam (A land, where Islam is having political power) and British rule as Dar ul-Harb (A land, where Islam is deprived of its political authority), he laid emphasis on jehadi spirit of the faith. Saiyid Ahmad (1786-1831) of Rai Bareli a trusted Salafist disciple of Abd al Aziz launched jehad on the Sikh kingdom but got defeated and killed in battle of Balkot in May 1831. Tired with their failures in re-establishing Muslim rule the followers of Wali Ullah preferred to keep their movement in suspended animation for decades, when the Britishers established their firm grip on this country.

The Sepoy mutiny of 1857 was a turning point in the history of Islamic fundamentalism in India. With its failure Indian Muslims lost all hopes to restore Muslim power in India. But successive Ulama in their attempt to keep the movement alive turned towards institutionalised Islamic movement. Some prominent followers of Salfi/Wahhabi movement like Muhammad Qasim Nanutvi and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi drew furter inspiration from the religio-political concept of Waliullah and set up an Islamic Madrassa at Deoband in U.P. on May 30, 1866, which grew into a higher Islamic learning centre and assumed the present name of Dar-ul-Uloom (Abode of Islamic learning) in 1879. Since then, Dar-ul-Uloom, which is more a movement than an institution has been carrying the puritanical tradition of Shah Waliullah and is a semi-Salafi/Wahabi movement inspired by Saudi Salafis.

His insistence for not diluting the cultural identity of Arab in a Hindu-majority environment shows that his so-called reform of Islam was only for a political motive. His obsession to extreme Sunnism, modern Deobandism/Wahabism, is welll known.

Contrary to his projected image of a reformer, Wali Ullah like other militant group of Islamic intellectuals did not appreciate any cultural and social reconciliation with non-Muslims in an integrated society. His communal bias against the political rise of non-Muslim powers like Maratha, Jat and Sikh goes against the theory that Wali Ullah was a Muslim thinker for Islamic moderation. His exclusivist theory favouring political domination of his community all over the world with starting point in India vindicates this point. In the background of his hate-Hindu political move, Wali Ullah may not stand the scrutiny of being a Muslim thinker for rational evaluation of Islam and its moderation.

Combination of Deobandi and Salafi/Wahabi extremism and religio-political strategy of Wali Ullah has become the main source of inspiration for Islamic terrorism as we see today in Pakistan, Afghanistan and India. So long the Muslim leaders and intellectuals do not come forward and re-evaluate the eighteenth century old interpretation of faith (Deobandi and Salafi ideology), any remedy for resolution of on going emotional disorder in society is a remote possibility. It is the social obligation of intellectuals to bluntly identify and confront the Deobandi and Salafi roots of terroism and awaken the moral and economic strength of entire society without any religious or sectarian prejudice.

http://saag.org/paper629

According to Khaled Ahmed, Shah Waliullah urged Ahmad Shah Durrani (Abdali) to invade India to save Muslims from Hindus and Shias.

Khaled Ahmed does a systemic review of Shia-Sunni conflict, from the start of this conflict, and makes special special mention of anti-Shia attitudes of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Shah Waliullah and Ahmad Shah Abdali. http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199065936.do

In context of Indian subcontinent, Mughal Emperor Alamgir crystallised anti-Shia sentiment in the psyche of Indian Muslims. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri compiled during the reign of Mughal emperor Alamgir under the supervision of Shah Waliullah and several hundred Sunni and Salafi jurists from all over the world was the first comprehensive volume which collected several hundred fatwas declaring the Shia infidels. It went as far as to say that anyone who does not accept the Muslim caliphs is an infidel. It also made it binding upon Muslims to call Shia Rafidah, a derogatory term meaning defectors, deserters, and traitors. All fatwas used against the Shia since then refer back to this collection. A close examination of the fatwas used by Sipah Sahaba and similar anti-Shia militant groups makes it clear that the source of them is Fatwa-e-Alamgiri collection.

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The three conditions that Sayyid Ahmad and the Deobandi Taliban fulfill are: fighting enemy number one (the British, the Americans) through a secondary enemy (the Sikhs, Pakistan); mixing local Islam with hardline Arab Islam; and using the tribal order as matrix of Islam. The Taliban derive their radical Islam from the Wahhabi severity of the money-distributing Arabs; the mujahideen of Sayyid Ahmad derived their puritanism from Shah Waliullah’s ‘contact’ with the Arabs in Hijaz in 1730.

In the battle of Balakot, Sikh commander Sher Singh finally overwhelmed Sayyid Ahmad after he was informed about his hideout by his Pashtun allies. Ahmad fought bravely but was soon cut down. To prevent a tomb from being erected on his corpse, the Sikhs cut him to pieces but ‘an old woman found the Sayyid’s severed head which was later buried in the place considered to be his tomb’ (p.105).

Ayesha Jalal notes that in the battlefield of Balakot, where Sayyid Ahmad of Rai Bareilly (not to be confused with Barelvi/Sufi sect of Sunni Islam) was martyred in 1831, another kind of ‘cross-border’ deniable jihad is being carried out by other mujahideen. She writes: ‘To this day Balakot where the Sayyid lies buried is a spot that has been greatly revered, not only by militants in contemporary Pakistan, some of whom have set up training camps near Balakot, but also by anti-colonial nationalists who interpreted the movement as a prelude to a jihad against the British in India’ (p.61).

Not far from Balakot, the votaries of the Sayyid are fighting on the side of Al Qaeda against ‘imperialist’ America and its client state, Pakistan, and killing more Muslims in the process than Americans, just as the Sayyid killed more Muslims than he killed Sikhs. According to Sana Haroon (Frontier of Faith: Islam in the Indo-Afghan Borderland; Hurst & Company London 2007), Ahmed Shah Abdali had induced descendants of Mujaddid Alf Sani to move to Kabul after his raid of Delhi in 1748. In 1849, Akhund Ghafur set up the throne of Swat and put Syed Akbar Shah on it as Amir of Swat, the Syed being a former secretary of Sayyid Ahmad of Rai Bareilly. It was a Salafi Wahhabi war in the eyes of mild Indian Muslims. It was therefore a virulently Sunni Salafi Wahhabi war which pointedly did not attract the Shia. Like Al Qaeda’s war against America, Sayyid Ahmad’s jihad was a Salafi Deobandi jihad, an aspect that must be made note of. Al Qaeda today kills Shias as its side business. (Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia – By Ayesha Jalal, Review by Khaled Ahmed, Jihad and retribalisation in Pakistan by Khaled Ahmed, Daily Times, July 12, 2008). http://www.amazon.com/Partisans-Allah-Jihad-South-Asia/dp/0674047362

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Abdul Nishapuri

17 Comments

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  • Some Pashtun and Deobandi including Pashtun Deobandi friends are extremely upset due to our posts on Ahmad Shah Durrani, Shah Waliullah and Bacha Khan.

    If we can criticize Jinnah, Bhutto, Khamenei, Zardari, Imran Khan, Munawar Hasan, Shaheedi etc why can’t we critically evaluate Bacha Khan, Ahmad Shah Durrani and Shah Waliullah? History, my friends, is more sacred than our political, ethnic and/or religious heroes. Academic and historical inquiries are feared and discouraged by insecure minds.

  • Reaction on facebook:

    Sadiq Ali: I have not researched any of these historic facts, so I cannot challenge your references. But I would suggest that you better spend your energies on the present time. Your these efforts are not helping Shia-cause. Being Shia I am living in a region that is surrounded by Pashtuns (majority Suni or deobandi). My parents used to tell me that pre-afghan war and iranian revolution (we can start from post 1945 when cold war started) there were no big conflicts. Wazeers and Turi tribe (both Pashtuns) were doing high level trades. Jaji (deopbandi) were calling Turi (Shia) as brother. To my understanding, the only way for Kurram and other suni surrounded area Shia-regions, to live with harmony and peace, is to hold Pashtun-wali. Otherwise there is no solution. So we should not create further divides by digging confirmed and unconfirmed history. Farhat TajHassan TuriRashid Orakzai

    Abdul Nishapuri: Historical facts need to be stated, and confronted only through historical facts. Nazi style silence on Deobandi terrorism must be exposed. Lastly, your advice about the use of my energies is unsolicited.

    Sadiq: Ali Abdul Nishapuri ! But in our efforts, we better consider the dynamics of those regions, their internal politics, tribes customs. In Kurram, Hangu, Orakzai, majority of the Shia killers are affiliated to group called Sepa-e-sahab, originated from central Punjab.

    You also move to Gilgit-Baltistan, where to neutralize the shia- majority, in time of Zia Anti-Shia settlers were brought from lower and central punjaab.

    Abdul Nishapuri: Sadiq, It’s not the Punjabi, Pashtun or Arab ethnicity which is problematic. Let’s not do to Punjabis what Ghamidi has done to Pashtuns. The problem resides in the radical Deobandi and Salafi ideology, the more clearly we state this, the more we will be able to serve Pashtuns, Punjabis and all others.

    Omara Khan: Ahmad Shah Abdali’s intentions were never sectarian in nature. They were primarily to secure the frontiers of his empire. Plus, it is a well established that the Shia Qizilibash had a high standing in the court and military of Ahmad Shah Abdali.
    Secondly about dislocations of Hazaras. At the end of Nadir Shah’s rule, Ahmad Shah Abdali unified petty chieftains and khanates into a Kingdom without prejudice to whether they were Sunni or Shia.
    Plus, as Sadiq Ali mentioned, the Shia Turi tribes in Kurram never had a sectarian conflict with the Mangal, Zazi, Wazir tribes.

    And it is strange that you find refuge in the ‘Tribal Analysis Center’, a known falsifier of history and an anti-Pashtun piece of work, whom essentially reduces the ISI sponsored massacres in Afghanistan in the past 30 years as a fight between the Pashtun Durrani and Pashtun Ghilzai tribes.

    Abdul Nishapuri: Omara, insead of ad hominem attack on the source, prove their statements wrong. Substanttive facts are more powerful than ad hominem.

    Sadiq Ali: In that case we should focus on exposing only Takfiri-Deobandi withtout attacking Ahamd Shah Abdali or Bacha Khan. I found true followers of these people very secular in their way of lives. Majority of literature against Shia by Takfiri-deobandi is coming from Karachi /Lahore.

    Abdul Nishapuri: Some friends wanted to know the historical context of why and how Deobandi ideology became powerful in Pashtun areas. In that context, the role of Bacha Khan along with tradititional Deobandi clerics is relevant.

    Similarly Ahmad Shah Abdali and Shah Waliullah played a key role in the rise of anti-Shia ideologies and attitudes in the subcontinent. It is important to highlight that role too.

    Omara Khan: Anyone who considers the ISI sponsored conflict in Afghanistan as a Durrani/Ghilzai conflict does not deserve to be treated with academic respect.
    A number of Hazara tribes of Afghanistan were/are Sunni. Ahmad Shah Abdali’s unification of his Kingdom affected both as they came under the central rule. If you accuse Ahmad Shah Abdali as a sectarian, you must be able to prove his intent of Shia discrimination. Reducing political/military/imperial policies/acts to sectarian squabbles only meekly tries to justify you already held assumptions.

    Sadiq Ali: Abdul Nishapuri When I find followers and actions of Bacha Khan very much pro-human, secular and secular then I will never dig holes of my desire in the written history.

    Omara Khan: From your post: ‘Abdali was an Afghan Sunni Muslim and Shuja was a Persian Shia Muslim. Shah Shuja was to regret his decision to join the Afghan forces. In time his forces became embroiled in clashes between the orthodox Sunni Afghans and his own Shia followers.’
    These are complete logical fallacies and non-sequiturs. How are you able to deduce that the conflict was because of their sectarian leanings? As I already said, Ahmad Shah’s army also consisted of Shia Hazara and Qizilbash forces. If it were a sectarian conflict, why did it not cause a split in Ahmad Shahs’ forces along sectarian lines. And Shuja e Daula’s regrets may have been due to his loss of relative power if Ahmad Shah was to extend his empire to India.

    Omara Khan: Also, had Ahmad Shah Baba’s intentions been sectarian, then, instead of India, he would have undertaken conquests and ‘massacres’ in Iran, which was a much more homogeneous Shia entity.The fact that Ahmad Shah Baba mostly concentrated on India supports the notion that his acts were not sectarian/religious at all.

    Abdul Nishapuri: Wusatullah Khan writes: شاہ ولی اللہ نے احمد شاہ ابدالی کو ہندوستان پر حملہ آور ہونے کی جو دعوت دی اس کا مدعا و مقصد نہ صرف بڑھتی ہوئی مرہٹہ طاقت کا زور توڑنا بلکہ دہلی سے رافضی اثرات ختم کرنا بھی تھا۔چنانچہ جب ابدالی حملہ آور ہوا تو اس نے دہلی میں اہلِ تشیع کو بطورِ خاص نشانہ بنایا۔ شاہ ولی اللہ کے صاحبزادے شاہ عبدالعزیز محدث دہلوی بھی بلند پایہ عالم تھے لیکن اثنا عشری عقائد کے بارے میں انکے خیالات اپنے والد کی نسبت زیادہ سخت تھے ۔اس کا اندازہ انکی تصنیف تحفہِ اثنا عشریہ پڑھ کے بھی ہوسکتا ہے – See more at: https://lubp.net/archives/306269#sthash.moMXOyOI.dpuf

    Omara Khan: There is no historical reference for these statements of Mr Wastullah. Also, It doesn’t make sense for the Shia element in Ahmad Shah Abdali’s army to slaughter their own sectarian brothers.

    Abdul Nishapuri: References are many, including those cited by Athar Rizvi and Khaled Ahmed. Denial won’t help.

    Abdul Nishapuri: Many Uncle Tom Shias (eg Nasim Zehra, Ejaz Haider) are currently serving ISI. Does that mean ISI is not complicit to Shia genocide via its TTP-ASWJ-LeJ assets?

    Hassan Turi : I will never curse any sect, faith, religion. Right from deobandis, shia, hindus….every religion has its radical wing used by some for political purpose. If deobandis are takfiris in Pakistan, Shia’s in iran are doing the same in Iran. So than we should also call them takfiri shia’s.

    Omara Khan Where does he give evidence for massacre of Shia’s in Delhi by Ahmad Shah’s armies?

    The problem is your reducing of every phenomenon to sectarian impulses. The whole of Ahmad Shah Baba’s life and his poetry has no signs of anti-Shia bias, which you have assumed in a bandwagonist manner.

    Abdul Nishapuri: Omara, Instead of attacking me, prove that what Khaled Ahmed, Wusatuallah Khan, Schimell and Athar Rizvi have written in wrong.

    Omara Khan: Easy, no one is attacking you. It is upto messrs Ahmed, Rizvi et al to prove sectarian bias in the actions of Ahmad Shah Baba in his military career, not for be to ‘disprove’ them. I have already pointed out contradictions and problems in their works. Like I said, Ahmad Shah Baba could have laid waste to Iran had he any anti-Shia lust, but he didn’t. India was his chosen theater of enterprise for different reasons.

    Abdul Nishapuri: They have written books to record and archive that Ahmad Shah was a sectarian bigot (anti-Hindu, anti-Shia). The onus is on Ahmad Shah’s admirers to publis research to specifically refute such allegations, to prove that he was non-sectarian.

    Omara Khan: Where can one find these books? The arguments in your link were totally wrong. I’d like to see real evidence.

    Hassan Turi: Pakhtun has become a punching bag everyone comes and punch. Yesterday it was Ghamdi, today it is Nishapuri and Ali Abbas Taj. You have left no one you are isolating the shia cause by blaming the worse affecties of centuries of wars. Thank you keep it up.

    Omara Khan: One will never see these ‘liberals’ condemn the Iranian theocracy for it’s treatment of Balochs, Kurds and Azeris in their country.

    Abdul Nishapuri: http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199065936.do
    http://journals.cambridge.org/…/displayAbstract…
    Sayyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, ‘Shah Waliullah and his times’, Ma’rifat publishing house 1980
    Sectarian War: Khaled Ahmed – Oxford University Press
    ukcatalogue.oup.com
    This book is the first comprehensive account of how Pakistan became involved in sectarian terrorism starting in the 1980s. How was the state of Pakistan dragged into this terrorism? All Pakistanis want to know about the roots of today’s terrorism. This book lays bare the infrastructure of terror as…

    DrRiz Khan Yousafzai: acha kiya Ahmad shah ne Marhata aur un ke bhayio ki hukumat khatm ki..

    Abdul Nishapuri @Omara: Once again you are attacking me instead of the argument. I can respond but don’t want to digress from the topic.

    Omara Khan: I have not attacked you at all. I am just pointing out issues with your narratives and practices. You have blamed Ahmad Shah for having clear sectarian motives for his actions for which you/others have provided no rational explanation.

    Abdul Nishapuri: I have provided references which clearly offer sectarian bigotry as the rational explanation of what Shah Waliullah and Abdali did to Hindus and Shias.

    Omara Khan: Why didn’t he launch incursions into Iran so often if his motives were sectarian?

    Abdul Nishapuri: I will remain focused on the presentation and analysis of what actually happened.

    Rahul Sharma: Ahmed Shah Abdali’s massacre of non-combatants, among Sikhs and Marathas, or others for that matter, is a clear and present example of crimes against humanity. Likewise, in the cases where Hindus or Sikhs or another identity was involved in a similar manner of atrocities, and they were, they are just as reprehensibly criminal. However, it is not from a secular or an ethnic perspective that it appears so, it DOES from a very essential humanist perspective. Unqualified eulogising, uncritical devotion to such persons through history or many parts of the world has been some sort of a norm, but is it right? If one thinks it is, it is still wrong, regardless.

  • How cruel were Afghan armies (Salafi Pashtun armies) of Ahmad Shah Durrani and how they tortured and brutally killed people in general and Hindu Pandits and Shias in particular?

    According to Lawrence, the victims of these fiends (Pathan rulers) were the Pandits, the Shias and the Bombas of the Jhelum valley. First in the rank of oppressors, comes Assad Khan who boasted that the savage Nadir Shah was his prototype. It was his practice to tie up the Pandits, two and two, in grass sacks and sink them in the Dal lake. As an amusement, a pitcher filled with ordure would be placed on a Pandit’s head and Musalmans would pelt the pitcher with stones till it broke, the unfortunate Hindu being blinded with filth. Mir Hazar was another fiend who used leather bags instead of grass sacks for the drowning of Brahmans. He drowned Shias and Brahmans indiscriminately. A locality on the bank of Dal lake is still called Bata Mazar, the ‘Graveyard of Pandits’. PNK Bamzai describes the terror unleashed by Afghans on Kashmiris like this: ‘Rude was the shock that the Kashmiris got when they witnessed the first acts of barbarity at the hands of their new masters. Abdullah Khan Ishk Aqasi let loose a reign of terror as soon as he entered the Valley. Accustomed to looting and murdering the subjected people, his soldiers set themselves to amassing riches by the foulest means possible. The well-to-do merchants and noblemen of all communities were assembled together in the palace and ordered to surrender all their wealth on pain of death.’ According to PNK Bamzai, those who had the audacity to complain or to resist (the Afghan brutality) were quickly despatched with the sword and in many cases, their families suffered the same fate. Red hot iron bars were applied to the body of a rich Muslim nobleman, Jalil by name. Another, Qazi Khan had to pay an enormous fine of a lakh of rupees, but suspecting that he had not surrendered his all, his son was put to such physical torture that he ended his life by drowning himself in the river.

    The kind of torture inflicted on Pandits, as narrated by Lawrence, explains the savage mentality of these fiends. ‘Atta Mohd. Khan was a ferocious libertine and his agent, an old woman named Koshib, was the terror of Brahman parents, who rather than allow the degradation of their daughters, destroyed their beauty by shaving their heads or cutting their noses.’

    During the Afghan rule, ‘Jazia’, the poll tax imposed on Pandits, which was earlier remitted by the great king Zain-ul-Abidin, was revived.

    Lal Khan Khattak, a jagirdar of Biru Pargana, attacked governor Jan Muhammad Khan’s forces in 1765, defeated him and proclaimed his independence. He let loose his orgy of terror on the Kashmiris, especially the Pandits. He put the members to sword or got them drowned in Dal lake, looted their valuables and thus wiping family after family. Shias also suffered during his time, when it is said, one Hafiz Abdullah, a Shia by faith, was beheaded by a leading Qazi on the allegation that he was propagating the doctrines of his religion disguised as a Sunni. Lal Khan was replaced by another governor Khurram Khan in 1766 who appointed Kailash Dhar as his chief minister.

    http://ikashmir.net/mkraina/6.html

  • What Kashmir had to witness was the revolt of Lal Khan Khattak, a baron of Beerva Pargana, against Noor-ud-din Bamzai’s nephew, Jan Muhammad Khan. Lal Khan discomfited the forces of Jan Muhammad and proclaimed his independence. He was given to mad fits, but was a religious bigot. He let loose an orgy of loot, plunder, murder and arson on the Kashmirians in general and the Hindus in particular.8 Whole families were stamped out and their valuables looted. He put their members either to sword or drowned them in the sparkling waters of the world famous Dal Lake.9 He was equally cruel to the Shia-Muslims, who were ruthlessly butchered. A Shia, Hafiz Abdullah by name, was accused of propagating the Shia doctrines in the guise of a Sunni. He was produced before a Qazi, who beheaded him with his own hands.l0 His rule lasted only for a period of six months. But it proved quite trying for the Hindus, who were Lal Khan’s main butts of target as he was motivated to extirpate ‘infidelity’ from the land of Kashmir. The Hindus were leaderless and could not galvanise themselves into a resisting force against the atrocious Lal Khan, who humiliated them by resorting to different ways.11

    What Kashmir had to witness was the revolt of Lal Khan Khattak, a baron of Beerva Pargana, against Noor-ud-din Bamzai’s nephew, Jan Muhammad Khan. Lal Khan discomfited the forces of Jan Muhammad and proclaimed his independence. He was given to mad fits, but was a religious bigot. He let loose an orgy of loot, plunder, murder and arson on the Kashmirians in general and the Hindus in particular.8 Whole families were stamped out and their valuables looted. He put their members either to sword or drowned them in the sparkling waters of the world famous Dal Lake.9 He was equally cruel to the Shia-Muslims, who were ruthlessly butchered. A Shia, Hafiz Abdullah by name, was accused of propagating the Shia doctrines in the guise of a Sunni. He was produced before a Qazi, who beheaded him with his own hands.l0 His rule lasted only for a period of six months. But it proved quite trying for the Hindus, who were Lal Khan’s main butts of target as he was motivated to extirpate ‘infidelity’ from the land of Kashmir. The Hindus were leaderless and could not galvanise themselves into a resisting force against the atrocious Lal Khan, who humiliated them by resorting to different ways.11

    http://www.kashmir-information.com/pastpresent/chapter6.html

  • via Ali Abbas Taj

    “Khada peeta lahay da tey baaqi Ahmed Shahey da” Punjabi Sufi poet Baba Bulleh Shah on the atrocities of Ahmad Shah Abdali in India

    (What we eat and drink is ours; Whatever is saved belongs to Ahmad Shah)

    Three Afghan invaders, Mohamad Ghazni, Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali, took away all that was valuable in India-the peacock throne of Shah Jahan, the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond and other precious jewels, sandalwood doors of Somnath Temple studded with precious stones and caravans of elephants loaded with valuables and whatever they could lay their hands upon. Young women, who were forcibly captured and sold in the markets of Afghanistan, were the worst sufferers.

    Ahmad Shah Abdali/Durrani was one of the most brutal looters and plunderers in human history. And sectarian bigot too.

  • via Abdul Nishapuri on facebook

    A word about colonial bashing of Punjabis by Pashtun nationalist friends.

    In one breath, some Pashtun nationalist friends often (not always) legitimately criticize the colonial narratives of Punjabis. In the next breath, they eulogize the barbarian Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Durrani Abdali, the sectarian mass murderer of the Shias, Hindus and Sikhs, who colonized and plundered Kashmir and parts of India.

  • محدث دہلوی امام شاہ عبدالعزیز اپنی کتاب ” تحفہ ءِ اثنا عشریہ” میں شعیہ حضرات کی بابت لکھتے ہیں:
    “اہل تاریخ اس پر متفق ہیں کہ شیعوں میں سے آج تک کوئی جہاد پر کمر بستہ نہیں ہوا اور نہ ہی ان میں سے کسی نے کسی ملک یا اس کے حصے کو کفار سے چھین کر اسے دارلسلام بنایا بلکہ اس کے برخلاف انہیں اگر کسی شہر کی سیادت یا حکمرانی ملی بھی جیسے مصر و شام کی ریاست ان کے پاس آ بھی گئ تو انھوں نے کفار ہی کی طرف دوستی اور یگانگت کا ہاتھ بڑھایا اور دین کو دنیا کے عوض بیچ کر دارلسلام کو دارلکفار میں تبدیل کر دیا۔ (یہ ہمیشہ کافروں سے دوستی اور مسلمانوں کے قتل پر شیر رہے)۔ چنانچہ اس کا نتیجہ ہے کہ جہاں اس مذہب کے سبز قدم پہنچے وہاں کے باشندے ہمیشہ غالب و شان رہے۔ چنانچہ توران، ترکستان، روم اور ہندوستان کے بادشاہوں نے شیعوں کے اختلاط اور دوستی سے پہلے عزت و شان کی زندگی بسر کی ہے اور جب کسی شہر اور ملک میں شیعہ مذہب رائج ہوا وہاں فتنہ و فساد ، بدبختی، اور ذلت و باہمی نفاق جو زوال سلطنت کے اندرونی اسباب شمار ہوتے ہیں، آسمان سے بارش قطرہ برسنے لگے اور پھر وہاں کی فضا ناقابل اصلاح ہوگئی۔ ایران، دکن اور ہندوستان میں ہی نہیں۔ ملک عرب، شام ، روم ، توران و ترکستان وغیرہ کے حالات کو دیکھ لیجئے(تو اسکی تصدیق ہوجائے گی)۔ اور تاریخ کا ایک یہ بھی ناقابل تردید تجربہ ہے کہ جب بھی اتفاق سے کسی ملک میں شیعہ غلبہ ہوا ہے تو اسکے کے متصل بعد ہی اس پر کفار کا غلبہ ہونا گویا لآزمی ہوگیا۔ بلکہ یہ سمجھنا چاہیے کہ ان کا تسلط کفار کے تسلط کا گویا پیش خیمہ ہوتا ہے اور یہ گویا چھوٹے کفار ہیں۔ بنگال ، دکن، پورب و گرد و نواح، لاہور پنجاب میں کفار کو یہی بدبخت و سیاہ روح، سیاہ کار ہی بر سر اقتدار لائے۔
    —————————————————————————
    (امام شاہ عبدالعزیز، ” تحفہ ءِ اثنا عشریہ”، باب دوم، ص ۹)
    (ترجمہ: مولانا خلیل الرحمن نعمانی)
    (پبلشر: عالمی مجلس تحفظ اسلام)

    When such morons are hailed as heroes in Pakistan Studies books, then no wonder ‪#‎ShiaGenocide‬ is a fact of life in the bastion of Islam

  • 3.Shah wali ulah wrote letters to Ahmad Shah Durrani to come and kill both Marhattas and Shias in Delhi. Reference:- Sayyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, ‘Shah Waliullah and his times’, Ma’rifat publishing house 1980, page 306

  • Shah Waliullah wrote to Abdali

    further wrote:

    “We beseech you in the name of Prophet to fight a jihad against the infidels of this region… The invasion of Nadir shah, who destroyed the Muslims, left the Marathas and Jats secure and prosperous. This resulted in the infidels regaining their strength and in the reduction of Muslim leaders of Delhi to mere puppets” ( Shah Wali Allah and his times by Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, page page305).

    He also instigated Rohillas leader Najib al Dawla against his Hindu employees alleging that they were sympathetic to Jats. “Shah WaliUllah pointed out that one of the crucial conditions leading to the Muslim decline was that real control of governance was in the hands of Hindus. All the accountants and clerks were Hindus. Hindus controlled the countries wealth while Muslims were destitute” ( Shah Wali Allah and his times by Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, 1980, page 304). In his letter he advised Abdali for ” orders prohibiting Holi and Muharram festivals should be issued” (Ibid. page, 299) exposed his hostility towards both Hindus and Shias.

    Reminding the Muslim rulers of the dominant role of Muslims even in a multi-religious society Wali Ullah said, “Oh Kings! Mala ala urges you to draw your swords and not put them back in their sheaths again until Allah has separated the Muslims from the polytheists and the rebelious Kifirs and the sinners are made absolutely feeble and helpless” (Ibid. page 299)

    – See more at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/paper629#sthash.vC3DEKG1.dpuf

  • The Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali attacked India in 1757 AD and made his way to the holy Hindu city of Mathura, the Bethlehem of the Hindus and birthplace ofKrishna.

    The atrocities that followed are recorded in the contemporary chronicle called : ‘Tarikh-I-Alamgiri’ :

    “Abdali’s soldiers would be paid 5 Rupees (a sizeable amount at the time) for every enemy head brought in. Every horseman had loaded up all his horses with the plundered property, and atop of it rode the girl-captives and the slaves. The severed heads were tied up in rugs like bundles of grain and placed on the heads of the captives…Then the heads were stuck upon lances and taken to the gate of the chief minister for payment.

    “It was an extraordinary display! Daily did this manner of slaughter and plundering proceed. And at night the shrieks of the women captives who were being raped, deafened the ears of the people…All those heads that had been cut off were built into pillars, and the captive men upon whose heads those bloody bundles had been brought in, were made to grind corn, and then their heads too were cut off. These things went on all the way to the city of Agra, nor was any part of the country spared.”

  • a shia nawab of Odh shah shuja ul mulk is the partner of Ahmed shah Abdali & Rohila nawab sardar najeeb khan in 3rd battle of panipat against the marhatas of Hindustan, Ahmed shah Abdali give a title “Farzand khan” to shuja ul mulk, before the founding of Afghanistan Ahmed shah Abdali is the guard of persian emperor Nader shah Irani who invasion in hindustan and It has been estimated that during the course of six hours in one day, 22 March 1739, something like 20,000 to 30,000 Indian men, women and children were slaughtered by the Persian troops during the massacre in the city.
    now my simple question to the author of this article please define the difference between Afghan Ahmed shah Abdali invasion and Persian Nader shah invasion of Hindustan, please

  • Victory Against Persians in 1751 and 1770

    Consequently, Mir Naseer Khan and the Army of Baloch participated with Ahmad Shah Abdali of Afghanistan in several expeditions and in some expeditions Naseer Khan was himself in command of the joint forces. His bold and victorious steering of the Battle of Nishapur and Mashhad in iran against the Persians in particular with his 6,000 Baloch forces in 1751 and 1770,so greatly impressed Ahmad Shah that He hugged Naseer Khan and gave him the title of Brather-e`-Wafadar(the faithful brother),

    Defeat of Afghan King Ahmad Shah Abdali and Treaty of Kalat in 1758

    Mir Noori Naseer Khan was in an Alliance with Ahmad Shah Durrani from 1749 to 1757 but he declared himself independent and broke the alliance with Afghans in 1758 as Ahmad Shah started interfering in the internal affairs of Balochistan Ahmad Shah Abdali tried every means of reconciliation to induce him to return to his alliance and agree to pay his usual tribute but Mir Naseer Khan treated the advance of Ahmed Shah with contempt and sent to him in reply a register of the Baloch army which exhibited an aggregate of two hundred thousand armed men ready to take up arms against him and Naseer Khan Baloch also told Ahmad Shah don’t interfere in my internal affairs for the next time. left with no alternative Ahmed Shah had to dispatch an army against Naseer Khan Baloch under the command of his prime minister Shah Wali Khan Mir Naseer Khan was not frightened at the approach of the Afghan army he levied his troops and as soon as he was informed of the arrival of shah wali khan he issued forth from Mastung to meet him the battle was fought near Pedangabad Mastung, the troops of Shah Wali were defeated by Noori Naseer Khan and forced to retire to a distance of thirty miles from the field of action. hearing the news of defeat Ahmad Shah Durrani came with a huge army of Afghan and non Afghan tribes and defeated Noori Naseer Khan in Mastung District Naseer Khan retreated in all haste to his stronger position in Kalat where Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch Defeated Ahmad Shah Abdali after which the treaty of Kalat was signed between both countries in Kalat in 1758 A.D. The main points of the treaty were following:-

    1) Khan- E -Baloch, Mir Naseer Khan Baloch will not pay any tribute to Shah-e-Afghan in the future

    2) Khan- E -Baloch will not supply San (Military assistance) to Ahmed Shah Durrani. But provided he is at war against external enemies, the Khan will supply a military contingent as a token of help, on the condition that the Afghan King provide annually Rs. 100,000 and military weapons and provide for the expenditure of the army as rewards

    3) Khan- E -Baloch will not provide any help or asylum to rebel princes of the Sadozai or Afghan Chiefs. On the other hand, the Afghan King also will not give any help or refuge to prince of the Royal Baloch family of Kalat- E -Ahmedzai

    4) Shah-e-Afghan in future will never interfere in the internal affairs, disputes and matters of Balochistan

    5) all those areas of Khan- E -Baloch, which are in the possession of Shah-e-Afghan will be handed over today to Khan- E -Baloch

    “To make the treaty more binding Ahmed Shah Abdali married a cousin of Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch” After the treaty of kalat Mir Naseer Khan accompanied the afghan army to india on each of Ahmad Shah’s invasions. Baloch cavalry had played a major role in Ahmad Shah’s army, notably in 1751, 1761, 1765 and the successive invasions of india.

    Third Battle of Panipat in 1761

    Similarly, it was Mir Naseer Khan again who, with his army of 25,000 Baloch, came to the help of Ahmed Shah Abdali at the famous Battle of Panipat (1761). It was this combination of outstanding military valor and fighting skill which crushed once and for all the rising Maratha menace in Northern India.

    Victory Against the Sikhs in 1765

    The Sikhs had formed themselves into a force to be reckoned with as early as 1710,when they made their first incursions into the Upper Doab under Banda-a nondescript follower of Guru Govind Singh. They had sacked Sharanpur, Ambehtan and Nanavath in the Upper Doab; but moved no further till after the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, when they once again resumed their infiltrations deeper into the region, finally capturing Lahore in 1764, where they established their short-lived Khalsa State extending from Jhelum to the banks of Jamuna.

    It was then that they rose against the Muslims, whose condition was getting progressively weaker due to the onset of the general decline of the Moghul Empire. Sensing danger to the cause of Islam, Ahmed Shah Durrani call for Jehad(religious war) against the Sikh and also sent a massage to Mir Naseer Khan to join him Khan-e-Baloch Mir Naseer Khan, responded readily to it, the latter’s contribution being a contingent of fifteen thousand Baloch warriors headed by himself in the front.

    Thus it was that a combined Muslim Army of 15,000 Baloch with Afghans who marched into India to meet their common foe in 1765. As always, Naseer Khan was in the forefront but in this particular engagement, he was more enthusiastic and reckless than ever, for if he fell on the battlefield, it would mean Shahadat(martyrdom)-a Divine distinction which every true Muslim must live for.

    And so it happened that while Mir Naseer Khan was piercing his way on his horse through the Sikh ranks in a furious outburst near Lahore, he fell off his steed; and as he fell to the ground, the turban he was wearing got loose. As a result, his long hair popped out from beneath his head-wear. One of the Sikh combatants noticing the fall rushed out at him with the sword to secure what could have been his ‘prize-kill’. But as fate would have it, another Sikh hastily halted his comrade’s blow in the nick of time, saying that the man(i e Naseer Khan) was a Khalsa(Sikh)!

    The Sikh had naturally mistaken the turban-less Nasir Khan for a Sikh! For, his long hair and unmistakably communal resemblance.

    However, by the time the Sikhs became aware of their self-deception, Naseer Khan was once again on his feet and the other Baloch Swordsmen, too, charged and drove back the Sikhs, who eventually suffered a crushing defeat and retreated in haste after which Ahmed Shah Abdali encamped in the fort of Rohtas here Ahmed Shah Durrani Thanked Naseer Khan Baloch for his valuable help,gave him the Territory of Quetta and also offered him the territories of Chenab, Multan and Jhang which he declined to except.

    Reference

    1. Akhund Muhammad Siddiqui,1984, Akhbar-ul-Abrar, (Tarikh-e-Khawanin-e-Kalat), Translated by: Mir Gul Khan Naseer, Nisa Traders, Quetta
    2. Baloch, Inayatullah,1987, The Problem of Greater Balochistan, GMBH, Stuttgart, Germany
    3. Dames, Long Wroth, 1988, Popular Poetry of Baloches, Balochi Academy, Quetta
    4. Dehwar, Muhammad Saeed, 1990, Tarikh-e-Balochistan, Nisa Traders, Quetta
    5. Durrani. Ashiq Muhammad Khan, Prof. Dr. 1999, Tarikh-e-Afghansitan, Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore
    6. Elphinstone, Mont Stuart, 1990, 2nd Edition, The Kingdom of Caboul, Vol-II, Gosha-e-Adab, Quetta
    7. Ganda Singh, Ahmed Shah Durrani, 1990, Gosha-e-Adab, Quetta
    8. Ganjabvi, Noor Mohammad, 1990 Jang Nama, Tohfatul-Naseer, Pakistan Study Centre, University of Balochistan, Quetta
    9. Hart, Lawrance Lak, , 2007, Nadir Shah, (Translated by: Tahir Mansoor Farooqui) Takhliqat Lahore
    10. Hughes, A. W. reprint, 2002, The Country of Balochistan, Sales and Services, Quetta
    11. Khan, Ahmed Yar, Mir, 2007 Tarikh-e-Qaum-o-Khawanin-e-Baloch, Al-Asar Publications, Lahore
    12. Marri, Shah Muhammad, 2000, Baloch Qaum Aed-e-Qadeem say Asre Hazir Tak, Takhliqat, Lahore
    13. Naseer, Gul Khan, Mir, 1984, Balochi Razmia Shairi, Balochi Academy, Quetta
    14. Naseer, Gul Khan, Mir, 2000, 4th Edition, Tarikh-e-Balochistan, Kalat Publisher, Quetta
    15. Pottinger, Henry, 1986,Travel in Sindh and Balochistan, Indus Publications, Karachi
    16. Sykes, Persi Monsorth, 1940, A History of Afghanistan, Vol -II, London
    17. Sykes, Persi Monsorth, 1940, A History of Persia, Vol-II, London
    18. G.P. Tate, 1973, Kingdom of Afghanistan, Indus Publications, Karachi.
    19. State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (Contemporary Issues in the Middle East): Ali Banuazizi, Myron Weiner
    20. Dictionary of battles and sieges: f-o by tony jaques
    21. The Baloch and Balochistan by Naseer Dashti

  • Aslaam o Alykum miss how are you i hope you will be fine . I am Moosa Abbas . as you have provided us the details about the conflict with reference .i have to say we need to study and one more thing i would like to ask you please tell me ., we need to understand Quran in Urdu and for this suggest me the name of a writer who is reliable because one person suggested me to read the translation that is given by shah Abdul Aziz son of shah Waliullah but after reading your message i can not go for this so please tell me about the authentic writer,because i am receiving the difference in Urdu of Quran. Waiting for your reply

  • The terms ” Religion, Language, God, …sms ” have become outmoded; their original significance disappeared long back; yet, people, even the most Scientific, Scholarly, Social Reformers are unable to shed them; to me it appears that every one, barring a few, longed / longs to have some-small or large numbers- people to admire him and for ever!!